Saturday, March 28, 2015

MelissaHopeDitmore. Encyclopedia of prostitution and sexwork. vol. 1. Bibliographie. Greenwood Press. 2006.


  A more extensive version of Kerwin Kaye’s entry on Male Prostitution was published in the Journal of Homosexuality 46, no. 1/2 (2003) under the title “Male Prostitution in the Twentieth Century: Pseudohomosexuals, Hoodlum Homosexuals, and Exploited Teens.”
Alison Murray’s entries on Forced Prostitution and Tourism are edited excerpts from Pink Fits: Sex, Subcultures and Discourses in the Asia-Pacific (Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 2001), used with permission from the author. Randall Platt’s entry on Slang is extracted from her forthcoming Slangmaster.
Gail Pheterson’s entry on Stigma is excerpted from “The Whore Stigma: Crimes of Unchastity,” in her book The Prostitution Prism (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1996, 65–89).
Stephanie Wahab’s entry on Diversion Programs is an edited excerpt from “Evaluating the Usefulness of a Prostitution Diversion Project,” Qualitative Social Work, in press, with permission from Sage Publications.
The entry on Feminism is a excerpted from Melissa Ditmore, “Trafficking and Prostitution: A Problematic Conflation” (PhD diss., City University of New York, 2002), with permission of the author.
Excerpts from A Guide to Best Practice Occupational Health and Safety in the Australian Sex Industry, Scarlet Alliance and the Australian Federation of AIDS Organizations, 2000. http://www.scarletalliance.org.au/pub/ are reprinted with permission from the Scarlet Alliance.

Abolition
Further Reading:
1.       Ditmore, Melissa. “Trafficking in Lives: How Ideology Shapes Policy.” In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights, ed. Kamala Kempadoo, Bandana Pattanaik, and Jyothi Sanghera. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press, 2005
2.       Donovan, Pamela. No Way of Knowing: Crime, Urban Legends, and the Internet. New York: Routledge, 2003
3.       Jordan, Jane. Josephine Butler. London: John Murray, 2001
4.       Self, Helen J. Prostitution, Women and Misuse of the Law: The Fallen Daughters of Eve. London: Frank Cass, 2003.

Abolitionisme
Further Reading:
1.       Barry, Kathleen. The Prostitution of Sexuality: The Global Exploitation of Women. New York: New York University Press, 1995
2.       Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) Web site www.catw.org
3.       Crago, Anna Louise. “Unholy Alliance.” www.alternet.org
4.       Ditmore, Melissa. “New U. S. Funding Policies on Trafficking Affect Sex Work and HIV-prevention Efforts World Wide.” SIECUS Report 33 (2005): 26-29
5.       Doezema, Jo. “Ouch! Western Feminists’ ‘Wounded Attachment’ to the Third- World Prostitute.” Feminist Review 67 (2001): 16–38
6.       Empower Foundation. Report by Empower Chiang Mai on the human rights violations women are subjected to when “rescued” by anti-trafficking groups. Network of Sex Work Projects. www.nswp.org
7.       Shapiro, Nina. “The New Abolitionists.” Seattle Weekly, 24–31 August 2004
8.       Walkowitz, Judith. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Abstinence
Further Reading:
1.       Ditmore, Melissa. “Trafficking in Lives: The Impact of New International Antitrafficking Law in Asia.” In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work and Human Rights, ed. Kamala Kempadoo, Bandana Pattanaik, and Jyothi Sanghera. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press, 2005
2.       Ditmore, Melissa. “Hysterical Policy: Morality in New Laws Addressing Trafficking and Sex Work.” Paper presented at the annual conference of the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Washington, DC, 23 June 2003. http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/Ditmore_Melissa.pdf
3.       Human Rights Watch. “Ignorance Only: HIV/AIDS, Human Rights and Federally Funded Abstinence-Only Programs in the United States
4.       Texas: A Case Study.” September 2002. http://hrw.org/reports/2002/usa0902/
5.       Human Rights Watch. “The Less They Know, the Better: Abstinence-Only and HIV/AIDS Programs in Uganda.” March 2005. http://hrw.org/reports/2005/uganda0305/.

Acton, William (1814-1875)
Further Reading:
1.       Fisher, Trevor. Prostitution and the Victorians. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997
2.       Hess, Marcy A. “Discursive Decontamination: Domesticating the Great Social Evil in Early Victorian Novels.” PhD diss., University of Alabama, 2001
3.       Mahood, Linda. The Magdalens: Prostitution in Nineteenth Century London. London: Routledge, 1990
4.       Mort, Frank. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987
5.       Walkowitz, Judith. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Actresses
Further Reading:
1.       Bell, Shannon. Reading, Writing, and Rewriting the Prostitute Body. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994
2.       Pullen, Kirsten. Actresses and Whores: On Stage and in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Addams, Jane (1860-1935)
Further Reading:
1.       Addams, Jane. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2002
2.       Addams, Jane. “Twenty Years at Hull-House.” In Written by Herself: Autobiographies of American Women: An Anthology, ed. Jill Ker Conway, Vol. 1. New York: Vintage Books, 1992
3.       Meigs, Cornelia. Jane Addams: Pioneer for Social Justice. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Addiction
Further Reading:
1.       Davies, John Booth. The Myth of Addiction. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998
2.       James, Jennifer. “Prostitution and Addiction—Interdisciplinary Approach.” Addictive Diseases 2, no. 4 (1976): 601–18
3.       Levine, Harry. “The Discovery of Addiction: Changing Conceptions of Habitual Drunkenness in America.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol 15 (1978): 493–506
4.       Maher, Lynne, and Ric Curtis. “Women on the Edge of Crime: Crack Cocaine and the Changing Contexts of Street-Level Sex Work in New York City.” Crime, Law and Social Change 18 (1992): 221–58
5.       Peele, Stanton. The Meaning of Addiction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998
6.       Ratner, Mitchell, ed. Crack Pipe as Pimp: An Eight City Ethnographic Study of the Sex-for-Crack Phenomenon. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1992
7.       Sterk, Clare E. Tricking and Tripping: Prostitution in the Era of AIDS. Putnam valley, NY: Social Change Press, 2000
8.       Zinberg, Norman. Drug, Set, and Setting: The Basis for Controlled Intoxicant Use. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

Adler, Polly (1900-1962)
Further Reading:
1.       Adler, Polly. A House Is Not a Home. New York: Rinehart & Company, 1950.

African Literature, postcolonial
Further Reading:
1.       Marechera, Dambudzo. The House of Hunger. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers, 1978
2.       Ndibe, Okey. Arrows of Rain. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000
3.       Senkoro, Fikeni. The Prostitute in African Literature. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press, 1982.

Ah Toy (1828 or 1829-1928)
Further Reading:
1.       Gentry, Curt. The Madams of San Francisco: An Irrelevant History of the City by the Golden Gate. New York: Doubleday, 1964.

Alcohol and drinking establishments
Further Reading:
2.       Brennan, Denise. Whats Love Got to Do with It?: Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004
3.       Bullough, Vern L. The History of Prostitution. New York: University Books, 1954
4.       Cavan, Sherri. Liquor License: An Ethnography of Bar Behavior. Chicago: Aldine, 1966
5.       Clark, Timothy J. “A Bar at the Folies Bergère.” In The Painting of Modern Life: Manet and His Contemporaries, ed. Bradford Collins. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996
6.       Clayson, Hollis. Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991
7.       Collins, Bradford, ed. Twelve Views of Manets Bar. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996
8.       Connelly, Mark Thomas. The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980
9.       Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Russell Hochschild, eds. Global Women: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Henry Holt, 2002
10.   Gilfoyole, Timothy J. City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992
11.   Gysels, M. et al. “Truck Drivers, Middlemen and Commercial Sex Workers: AIDS and the Mediation of Sex in South West Uganda.” AIDS Care 13, no. 3 ( June 2001): 373–85
12.   Haine, Scott W. The World of the Paris Café: Sociability among the French Working Class, 1789–1914. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996
13.   Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism: Art, Leisure and Parisian Society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988
14.   Humphreys, Laud. Tearoom Trade: Impersonal Sex in Public Places: Enlarged Edition with a Retrospect on Ethical Issues. Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1982
15.   Lewis, James C. et al. “Beer Halls as a Focus for HIV Prevention Activities in Rural Zimbabwe.” Sexually Transmitted Diseases 32, no. 6 (2005): 364–70
16.   Myers, Ted et al. “Gay and Bisexual Men’s Sexual Partnerships and Variations in Risk Behavior.” Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 8, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 115–27
17.   Pickering, Helen et al. “Sexual Networks in Uganda: Casual and Commercial Sex in a Trading Town.” AIDS Care 9, no. 2 (1997): 199–208
18.   Roberts, Nickie. Whores in History: New York: HarperCollins, 1992
19.   Sanger, William W. The History of Prostitution: Its Extent, Causes and Effects throughout the World. New York: Medical Publishing, 1910
20.   Schifter, Jacobo. Latino Truck Driver Trade: Sex and HIV in Central America. New York: Haworth Hispanic/Latino Press, 2001
21.   Steinfatt, T. M. Working at the Bar: Sex Work and Health Communication in Thailand. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002
22.   Thanh-Dam Truong. Sex, Money and Morality: Prostitution and Tourism in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books, 1990
23.   Walkowitz, Judith. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

American Literature
Further Reading:
1.       Aguiar, Sarah Appleton. The Bitch Is Back: Wicked Women in Literature. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001
2.       Fessenden, Tracy, Nicholas F. Radel, and Magdalena J. Zabrorwska. The Puritan Origins of Sex: Religion, Sexuality, and National Identity in American Literature. New York: Routledge, 2001
3.       Hapke, Laura. Girls Who Went Wrong: Prostitutes in American Fiction, 1885– 1917. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1989
4.       Horn, Pierre L., and Mary Beth Pringle. The Image of the Prostitute in Modern Literature. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1984
5.       Trask, Michael. Cruising Modernism: Class and Sexuality in American Literature and Social Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.

American West, 19th century
Further Reading:
1.       Barnhart, Jacqueline Baker. The Fair but Frail: Prostitution in San Francisco, 1849–1900. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1986
2.       Butler, Anne M. Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865–1890. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1985
3.       Cott, Nancy. “Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology, 1790–1850.” Signs 4 (Winter 1978): 219–36
4.       De Graaf, Lawrence B. “Race, Sex, and Region: Black Women in the American West, 1850–1920.” Pacific Historical Review 49 (May 1980): 285–313
5.       Goldman, Marion S. Gold Diggers and Silver Miners: Prostitution and Social Life on the Comstock Lode. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981
6.       Hurtado, Albert L. Intimate Frontiers: Sex, Gender, and Culture in Old California. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999
7.       Lotchin, Roger W. San Francisco, 1846–1856: From Hamlet to City. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974
8.       Mackay, Thomas C. Red Lights Out: A Legal History of Prostitution, Disorderly Houses, and Vice Districts, 1870–1917. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987
9.       Murphy, Mary. “The Private Lives of Public Women: Prostitution in Butte, Montana, 1878–1917.” In The Womens West, ed. Susan Armitage and Elizabeth Jameson. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987
10.   Nichols, Jeffrey. Prostitution, Polygamy, and Power: Salt Lake City, 1847–1918. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002
11.   Peffer, George Anthony. If They Dont Bring Their Women Here: Chinese Female Immigration before Exclusion. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999
12.   Petrik, Paula. No Step Backward: Women and Family on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier, Helena, Montana 1865–1900. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 1987
13.   Riley, Glenda. “American Daughters: Black Women in the West.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 38 (Spring 1988): 14–27
14.   Shumsky, Neil Larry, and Larry M. Springer. “San Francisco’s Zone of Prostitution, 1880– 1934.” Journal of Historical Geography 7, no. 1 (1981): 71–89
15.   Tong, Benson. Unsubmissive Women: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Amsterdam
Further Reading:
1.       Brants, Chrisje. “The Fine Art of Regulated Tolerance: Prostitution in Amsterdam.” Journal of Law and Society 25, no. 4 (1998): 621–35
2.       van de Pol, Lotte C. Het Amsterdams Hoerdom. Prostitutie in de zeventiende en achttiende eeuw. Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, 1996
3.       van de Pol, Lotte C. “The History of Policing Prostitution in Amsterdam.” In Regulating Morality: A Comparison of the Role of the State in Mastering the Mores in the Netherlands and the United States, ed. Hans Krabbendam and Hans-Martien ten Napel. Antwerp, Belgium: Apeldoorn, 2000, pp. 97–112
4.       van de Pol, Lotte C. La puta y el ciudadano. La prostitución en Amsterdam en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Madrid: Siglo XXI, 2005.

Anatomical museums
Further Reading:
1.       Lemire, Michel. Artistes et Mortels. Paris: Chadaud, 1990
2.       Parish, Lawrence Charles, Gretchen Worden, Joseph A. Witkowski, Albrecht Scholz, and Daniel H. Parish. “Wax Models in Dermatology.” Studies of the College of Philadelphia 13, no. 1 (1991): 29–74
3.       Schnalke, Thomas. Diseases in Wax: The History of the Medical Moulage. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing, 1995.

The Anatomie of abuses (1583)
Further Reading:
1.       Pollard, Tanya, ed. Shakespeares Theater: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004
2.       Stubbes, Philip. The Anatomie of Abuses. Ed. Margaret Jane Kidnie. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies in conjunction with Renaissance English Text Society, 2002.

Ancient Rome
Further Reading:
1.       McGinn, Thomas A. J. The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman World: A Study of Social History and the Brothel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004
2.       McGinn, Thomas A. J. Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Ancient world
Further Reading:
1.       Adams, J. N. “Words for ‘Prostitute’ in Latin.” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, 126 (1983): 321–58
2.       Assante, Julia. “The kar.kid/harimtu, Prostitute or Single Woman?” Ugarit Forschungen 30 (1998): 5–96
3.       Bird, Phyllis. “‘To Play the Harlot’: An Inquiry into an Old Testament Metaphor.” In Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel, ed. Peggy Day. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989, pp. 75–94
4.       Cohen, Edward E. “An Economic Analysis of Athenian Prostitution.” In Courtesans and Prostitutes in the Ancient World, ed. Laura McClure and Christopher Faraone. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006
5.       Davidson, James N. Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998
6.       Demand, Nancy. Birth, Death, and Motherhood in Classical Greece. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994
7.       Flemming, Rebecca. “Quae Corpore Quaestum Facit: The Sexual Economy of Female Prostitution in the Roman Empire.” Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999): 38–61
8.       George, Andrew. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. London: Penguin Books, 1999
9.       Lefkowitz, Mary R., and Maureen B. Fant. Womens Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992
10.   Loomis, William T. “Prostitutes and Pimps.” Chap. 9 in Wages, Welfare Costs and Inflation in Classical Athens. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998, pp. 166–85
11.   McGinn, Thomas A. J. The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman World: A Study of Social History and the Brothel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004
12.   McGinn, Thomas A. J. Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Aquinas, Thomas (1224 or 1225-74)
Further Reading:
1.       Bullough, Vern L., and Bonnie Bullough. Sexual Attitudes: Myths and Realities. New York: Prometheus Books, 1995
2.       Bullough, Vern L., and Bonnie Bullough. Women and Prostitution: A Social History. New York: Crown Books, 1987
3.       Dauphin, Claudine. Brothels, Baths, and Babes: Prostitution in the Byzantine Holy Land. Vol. 3. Dublin, Ireland: University College, 1996
4.       Internet Medieval Source Book. Aquinas on Sex. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/aquinas-sex.html
5.       Karras, Ruth Mazo. Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Arab Gulf
Further Reading:
1.       Calandruccio, Giuseppe. “A Review of Recent Research on Human Trafficking in the Middle East.” International Migration 43, nos. 1/2 (2005): 267–99
2.       Fisk, Robert. “A Nation’s Best-Kept Secret: The Women Lured to Lebanon with a One-Way Ticket into Slavery.” The Independent, 6 July 2002
3.       Freedom House Country Reports. Freedom House Web site http://www. freedomhouse.org/research/index.htm/
4.       The Protection Project. “Human Rights Report of North Africa and the Middle East.” http://www.protectionproject.org/main1.htm
5.       United Nations. “ The Arab Human Development Report 2004.” http://hdr.undp.org/reports/detail_reports.cfm?view=912
6.       U.S. Department of State. “Trafficking in Persons Report.” 14 June 2004. http://www.state. gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/.

Arab MediteRRanean
Further Reading:
1.       Clancy-Smith, Julia. “Islam, Gender, and Identities in the Making of French Algeria.” In Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism, 1830–1962. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 154–74
2.       Clancy-Smith, Julia. “Marginality and Migration: Europe’s Social Outcasts in Pre-Colonial Tunisia, 1830–81.” In Outside In: On the Margins of the Modern Middle East, ed. Eugene Rogan. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002
3.       Fahmy, Khaled. “Prostitution in Egypt in the Nineteenth Century.” In Outside In: On the Margins of the Modern Middle East, ed. Eugene Rogan. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

Artists’ models
Further Reading:
1.       Bignamini, Ilaria, and Martin Postle. The Artists Model: Its Rôle in British Art from Lely to Etty. Exh. Cat. Nottingham, England: Nottingham University Art Gallery, 1991
2.       Borzello, Frances. The Artists Model. London: Junction Books, 1982
3.       Hollander, Elizabeth. “Artists’ Models in Nineteenth Century America: A Study of Professional Identity.” Annals of Scholarship 10, nos. 3–4 (1993): 281–303
4.       Honour, Hugh. “Black Models and White Myths.” In The Image of the Black in Western Art, ed. Karen C. C. Dalton. Vol. 4. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989
5.       Jiminez, Jill, ed. Dictionary of Artists Models. London: Fitzroy-Dearborn, 2001
6.       Lathers, Marie. Bodies of Art: French Literary Realism and the Artists Model. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001
7.       Postle, Martin, and William Vaughan. The Artists Model from Etty to Spencer. Exh. Cat. London: Merrell Holberton, 1999.

Asociacion de Trabajadora Autónomas “22 de Junio” de EL ORO
Further Reading:
1.       Asociacion de Trabajadora Autónomas “22 de Junio” de El ORO en Fundación Quimera. “Trabajadoras del sexo. Memorias Vivas.” 2002
2.       Manzo Rodas, R., M. Briones Velasteguí, and T. Cordero Velásquez. “Nosotras, Las Señoras Alegres.” Quito: Abrapalabra Ediciones, 1991.

Attitudes toward prostitution: sociopsychological
Further Reading:
1.       Baumeister, Roy F., and Kathleen D. Vohs. “Sexual Economics: Sex as Female Resource for Social Exchange in Heterosexual Interactions.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 8, no. 4 (2004): 339–63
2.       Cotton, Ann, Melissa Farley, and Robert Baron. “Attitudes toward Prostitution and Acceptance of Rape Myths.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32, no. 9 (September 2002): 1790– 96
3.       Haidt, Jonathan, and Matthew A. Hersh. “Sexual Morality: The Cultures and Emotions of Conservatives and Liberals.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31, no. 1 (2001): 191–221
4.       Prasad, Monica. “The Morality of Market Exchange: Love, Money, and Contractual Justice.” Sociological Perspectives 42, no. 2 (1999): 181–214
5.       Rozin, P., J. Haidt, and C. R. McCauley. “Disgust.” In Handbook of Emotions, 2nd ed., ed. M. Lewis and J. Haviland, pp. 575–94. New York: Guilford Press, 2000
6.       Tetlock, Philip E., Orie Kristel, Beth Elson, Melanie Green, and Jennifer Lerner. “The Psychology of the Unthinkable: Taboo Trade-offs, Forbidden Base Rates, and Heretical Counterfactuals.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (2000):853–70.

Augustine, Saint
Further Reading:
1.       Fathers of the Church. New Advent Web site. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/
2.       Russell, Robert P., trans. Divine Providence and the Problem of Evil: A Translation of Saint Augustines De ordine. New York: Cosmopolitan Science and Art Service, 1942.

Auletris
Further Reading:
1.       Davidson, James N. Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
2.       Kurke, Leslie. Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999
3.       McClure, Laura. Courtesans at the Table: Gender and the Greek Literary Tradition in Athenaeus. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Australia and New Zealand
Further Reading:
1.       Adams, Simon, and Raelene Frances. “Lifting the Veil: The Sex Industry, Museums and Galleries.” Labour History 85 (2003): 36 pars. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lab/85/ adams.html
2.       Demaere, Kate. “Decriminalisation as Partnership: An Overview of Australia’s Sex Industry Law Reform Model.” Research for Sex Work 8 (2005): 14–15. http://www.researchforsexwork.org
3.       Dickie, Phil. “Civilising the Sex Trade.” Brisbane Institute, 25 July 2001. http://www.brisinst.org.au/resources/ dickie_phil_prostitution.html
4.       “A Guide to Best Practice: Occupational Health and Safety in the Australian Sex Industry.” 2000. Australian Federation of AIDS Organizations Web site. http://www.afao.org.au/ view_articles.asp?pxa=ve&pxs=100&pxsc=&pxsgc=&id=204.
5.       “A Guide to Occupational Health and Safety in the New Zealand Sex Industry.” 2004. Department of Occupational Safety and Health of New Zealand Web site. http://www.osh.dol.govt.nz/order/catalogue/235.shtml
6.       Hughes, Robin, “Ray Whitrod, Full Interview Transcript.” Australian Biography Project, Australia Film and National Library of Australia. 19 October 2000. http://www.australianbiography.gov.au/whitrod/interview8.html
7.       McKewon, Elaine. The Scarlet Mile: A Social History of Prostitution in Kalgoorlie, 1894–2004. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press, 2005
8.       Mistress Emma and Mistress Kate. “Scarlet Alliance Joy Bus Tour.” Slit Magazine 8 (2005): 30–37
9.       Perkins, Roberta. “Sexual Health and Safety among a Group of Prostitutes.” In Sex Industry and Public Policy: Proceedings of a Conference Held 6–8 May 1991. Sally-Anne Gerull and Boronia Halstead, eds. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1992 , pp. 147–53
10.   Perkins, Roberta. Working Girls: Prostitutes, Their Life and Social Control. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991
11.   Perkins, Roberta, and G. Bennett. Being a Prostitute: Prostitute Women and Prostitute Men. Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985
12.   Scarlet Alliance Web site. http://www.scarletalliance.org.au
13.   West Australian Police. “Police Re-open Shirley Finn Murder File.” 23 June 2005. www.police.wa.gov.au/ MediaAndPublicAffairs/MediaReleases/3232.pdf
14.   Woodward, Charrlotte, and Jane Fischer. “Regulating the World’s Oldest Profession: Queensland’s Experience with a Regulated Sex Industry.” Research for Sex Work 8 (2005): 16-18. http://www.researchforsexwork.org
15.   Wotton, Rachel. “The Relationship between Street-based Sex Workers and the Police in the Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Strategies.” Research for Sex Work 8 (2005): 11–13. http://www.researchforsexwork.org
16.   Wright, Raymond. Who Stole the Mace? Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Parliament Library, 1991.

Australian mace scandal
Further Reading:
1.       Wright, Raymond. Who Stole the Mace? Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Parliament Library, 1991.

Ballet
Further Reading:
1.       Broude, Norma, and Mary D. Garrard. The Expanding Discourse: Feminism and Art History. New York: HarperCollins, 1992
2.       Garafola, Lynn. Ed. Rethinking the Sylph: New Perspectives on the Romantic Ballet Studies in Dance History (Unnumbered). Wesleyan University Press, 1997. http://www.netLibrary.com/urlapi.asp?action=summary&v=1&bookid=45217.
3.       Hanna, Judith Lynne. Dance, Sex and Gender: Signs of Identity, Dominance, Defiance, and Desire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Bangkok
Further Reading:
1.       Barmé, Scot. Woman, Man, Bangkok Love, Sex and Popular Culture in Th ailand. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002
2.       Jeffries, Leslie Ann. Sex and Borders Gender, National Identity, and Prostitution Policy in Thailand. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2002.

Barr, Candy (1935-2005)
Further Reading:
1.       Sullivan, Steve. Va Va Voom!: Bombshells, Pin-ups, Sexpots, and Glamour Girls. Los Angeles: General Publishing Group, 1995.

Bellocq, Ernest J. (1873-1949)
Further Reading:
1.       Rose, Rex. “The Last Days of Ernest J. Bellocq.” Exquisite Corpse: A Journal of Letters and Life, No. 10 (1999). http://www.corpse.com/issue_10/gallery/bellocq
2.       Wallis, Brian, Curator. “The Mysterious Monsieur Bellocq.” International Center of Photography Web site http:// www.icp.org/exhibitions/bellocq/ICP_brochure_bellocq.pdf.

Bible
Further Reading:
1.       Bird, Phyllis. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997
2.       Corley, Kathleen. Private Women, Public Meals. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993
3.       Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schuessler. In Memory of Her. New York: Crossroad, 1985
4.       Glancy, Jennifer. Slavery in Early Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002
5.       McClure, Laura, and Christopher Faraone, eds. Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.

Blue books
Further Reading:
1.       Arceneaux, Pamela. “Guidebooks to Sin: The Blue Books of Storyville.” Louisiana History 28 (1987): 397–405
2.       Gilfoyle, Timothy J. City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994
3.       Idem, Semper. The Blue Book, a Bibliographical Attempt to Describe the Guide Books to the Houses of Ill Fame. New Orleans: privately printed, 1936.

Blues
Further Reading:
1.       Brown, Cecil. Stagolee Shot Billy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003
2.       Carby, Hazel. “It Just Be’s Dat Way Sometime: The Sexual Politics of Women’s Blues.” Radical America 20, no. 4 ( July 1986): 9–22
3.       Davis, Angela Y. Blues Legacies and Black Feminism: Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998
4.       McLary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
Suggested Listening:
Various Artists. Flashbacks, Vol. 3—Copulation Blues: Hot & Sexy. Trikont, 2000
Various Artists. Street WalkinBlues: 25 Plaintive Paeans to the Worlds Oldest Profession. Mojo Records, 1996.

Brady, “Diamond Jim” (1856-1917)
Further Reading:
1.       Jeffers, H. Paul. Diamond Jim Brady: Prince of the Gilded Age. New York: John Wiley, 2001.

Brel, Jacques (1929-1978)
Further Reading: Watkinson, Mike, Pete Anderson, and Scott Walker. A Deep Shade of Blue.
London: Virgin Books, 1995.

British Literature
Further Reading:
1.       Carter, Angela. The Sadeian Woman. London: Virago, 1979
2.       Haselkorn, Anne M. Prostitution in Elizabethan and Jacobean Comedy. Troy: Whitson, 1983
3.       Mudge, Bradford K. The Whores Story: Women, Pornography, and the British Novel, 1684–1830. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000
4.       Parsons, Deborah. Streetwalking the Metropolis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000
5.       Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Brothel tokens

Brothels
Further Reading:
1.       Albert, Alexa E. Brothel. New York: Random House, 2001
2.       Barlow, Caroline. “A Brothel Owner’s View.” In Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia, ed. Roberta Perkins. Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press, 1991, pp. 133–39
3.       Blain, Roxy. “A Female Sex Worker’s View.” In Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia, ed. Roberta Perkins. Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press, 1991, pp. 113–25
4.       Brents, Barbara G., and Kathryn Hausbeck. “State-Sanctioned Sex: Negotiating Formal and Informal Regulatory Practices in Nevada Brothels.” Sociological Perspectives 44 (2001): 307–32
5.       Diana, Lewis. The Prostitute and Her Clients: Your Pleasure Is Her Business. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1985
6.       Heyl, Barbara Sherman. The Madam as Entrepreneur: Career Management in House Prostitution. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1979
7.       Heyl, Barbara Sherman. “The Madam as Teacher: The Training of House Prostitutes.” Social Problems 24 (1977): 535–45
8.       Morton, James. “Legalising Brothels.” Journal of Criminal Law 68 (2004): 87–89
9.       Symanski, Richard. The Immoral Landscape: Female Prostitution in Western Societies. Toronto: Butterworths, 1981.

Butler, Josephine (1828-1906)
Further Reading:
1.       Hollis, Patricia. Women in Public, 1850–1900: Documents of the Victorian Women’s Movement. London: Allen and Unwin, 1979
2.       Petrie, Glen. A Singular Iniquity: The Campaigns of Josephine Butler. New York: Viking Press, 1971
3.       Walkowitz, Judith R. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Call girls
Further Reading:
1.       Quan, Tracy. Diary of a Manhattan Call Girl. New York: Crown, 2002
2.       Thukral, Juhu, Melissa Ditmore, and Alexandra Murphy. Behind Closed Doors: An Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in New York City. New York: Urban Justice Center, 2005. http://www.sexworkersproject.org/ reports/BehindClosedDoors.html.

Camp followers
Further Reading:
1.       Butler, Anne. “Military Myopia: Prostitution on the Frontier.” Prologue: Journal of the National Archives 13, no. 4 (1981): 233–50
2.       Sandos, James. “Prostitution and Drugs: The United States Army on the Mexican-American Border, 1916–1917.” Pacific Historical Review 49, no. 4 (1980): 621–45
3.       Sturdevant, Saundra Pollack, and Brenda Stoltzfus,. Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia. New York: New Press, 1992.

Canadian Literature
Further Reading:
1.       Bell, Shannon. Reading, Writing, and Rewriting the Prostitute Body. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994
2.       Brock, Debi. Making Work, Making Trouble: Prostitution as a Social Problem. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998
3.       Campbell, Maria. Halfbreed. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973
4.       Dickinson, Peter. Here Is Queer: Nationalisms, Sexualities and the Literatures of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999
5.       Maggie’s & the Prostitutes’ Safe Sex Project. www.walnet.org/csis/groups/maggies/
6.       McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Caribbean
Further Reading:
1.       Alexander, M. Jacqui. “Imperial Desire/Sexual Utopias: White Gay Capital and Transnational Tourism.” In Talking Visions: Multicultural Feminism in a Transnational Age, ed. Ella Shohat. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998, pp. 281–305
2.       Kempadoo, Kamala. Sexing the Caribbean: Gender, Race, and Sexual Labor. New York: Routledge, 2004
3.       Kempadoo, Kamala, ed. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999
4.       Padilla, Mark. “Looking for Life: Male Sex Work, HIV/AIDS, and the Political Economy of Gay Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic.” PhD diss., Emory University, 2003
5.       Sheller, Mimi. Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Central America
Further Reading:
1.       Hayes, Anne. Female Prostitution in Costa Rica: Historical Perspectives, 1880–1930. New York: Routledge, 2006
2.       Madrigal Pana, Johnny. “En las trincheras de la confianza. Una encuestra sobre el condón en las trabajadoras comerciales del sexo de América Central.” San José, Costa Rica: Editorial ILPES, August 1998
3.       McCreery, David. “‘This Life of Misery and Shame’: Female Prostitution in Guatemala City, 1880–1920.” Journal of Latin American Studies 18 (1993): 333–53.

Central and east Africa
Further Reading:
1.       Bakwesegha, Christopher J. Profiles of Urban Prostitution: A Case Study from Uganda. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1982
2.       Becker, Charles, Jean-Pierre Dozon, Christine Obbo, and Mouriba Touré, eds. Experiencing and Understanding AIDS in Africa. Paris: Codesria, 1998
3.       Grosz-Ngaté, Maria, and Omari H. Kokole, eds. Gendered Encounters: Challenging Cultural Boundaries and Social Hierarchies in Africa. New York: Routeldge, 1997
4.       Hodgson, Dorothy L., and Sheryl A. McCurdy, eds. “WickedWomen and the Reconfiguration of Gender in Africa. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001
5.       Kinyamba, Shomba. La Prostitution Son Vrai Visage Au Zaïre. Lubumbashi: Editions Africa, 1987
6.       Muga, Erasto, ed. Studies in Prostitution (East, West and South Africa, Zaire and Nevada). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1980
7.       Werbner, Richard, and Terence Ranger, eds. Postcolonial Identities in Africa. London: Zed Press, 1997
8.       White, Luise. The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Central and eastern Europe and central Asia
Further Reading:
1.       AIDS Infoshare. “Basic Characteristics of the Commercial Sex Industry in Four Regions in Russia Where HIV/STI Prevention Activities Have Been Established under AIDS Infoshare Project Activities.” Moscow, Russia: AIDS Infoshare, 2001
2.       AIDS Infoshare. Expert Survey: “Needs of Regions in Legislative and Normative Regulation of Commercial Sex Work (Prostitution).” Vilnius, Lithuania: CEEHRN, 2003
3.       Andrushchak, L. I., and L. N. Khodakhevich. “The Reduction of the HIV Vulnerability of Women Involved in the Sex Business in Ukraine through Social Mobilization and the Creation of Self Support Networks.” Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 4 (2000): 118–19
4.       Arsova, T. “Prostitution and Sex Workers in Bulgaria: Analysis of the Situation and the Risk with Regards to HIV/AIDS/STDs.” Health and Social Development Foundation, UNDP, Project No. BUL/98/ 005. Bulgarian National HIV/AIDS Strategy Planning, 2000
5.       Asia Foundation East West. “Summary Report of Baseline Characteristics of NGO Counterparts in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.” Prepared under the Drug Demand Reduction Programme in Central Asia. Moscow: AFEW, 2003
6.       Benotsch, E., A. M. Somlai, S. D. Pinkerton, J. A. Kelly, D. Ostrovski, C. Gore-Felton, and A. P. Kozlov. “Drug Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Female Russian IDUs Who Exchange Sex for Money or Drugs.” International Journal of STD & AIDS 15 (2004): 343–47
7.       Burris S., and D. Villena. “Adapting to the Reality of Difficult HIV Policy   Choices in Russia, China, and India.” Human Rights (Winter 2002). http://www.abanet.org/irr/hr/ fall04/reality.htm
8.       Central and Eastern Europe Harm Reduction Network. Sex Work, HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Vilnius, Lithuania: CEEHRN, 2005
9.       Dreizin, A. “Work with ‘Street’ Prostitutes in the Framework of a Harm Reduction Project in Kaliningrad.” Russian Journal of HIV/AIDS and Related Issues 4, no. 1 (2000): 134
10.   Khromova, Y., E. Safarova, L. Dubovskaya, S. A. Averchenko, L. Dugasheva, C. Ryan, S. O. Aral, J. St. Lawrence, J. Lewis, J. Braxton, and A. Shakarishvili. “High Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), HIV and Risky Behaviors among Female Detainees in Moscow, Russia.” Oral presentation, XIV International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 7–12 July 2002
11.   Konings, E. “Prostitution and HIV/AIDS in CEE/CIS.” Geneva: UNAIDS, 1996
12.   Kurmanova, G. “On Providing Technical Assistance to the Pilot Project—Strengthening of HIV/AIDS/ STDs Prevention among Vulnerable Groups of Young Women in Turkmenistan.” Ashgabad, Turkmenistan, 1999
13.   Kurova, T, S. M. Malceva, and P. A. Mardh. “Prostitution in Riga, Latvia—A Socio-medical Matter of Concern.” Acta Obstetricia Gunecologia, Scandinavia 77, no. 1 (1998): 83–86
14.   Lakhumalani, V. “The Prostitution Situation in a Number of Cities of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.” Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 1(1997): 102–4
15.   Loseva, O., and M. Nashkhoev. “Sex Workers: Social Origins, Sexual Behavior, Potential for Spreading STIs.” Dermatology and Venerology Bulletin 3 (1999): 16–22
16.   Lowndes, C. M., T. Rhodes, A. Judd, L. Mikhailova, A. Sarang, A. Rylkov, M. Tichonov, L. Platt, and A. Renton. “Female Injection Drug Users Who Practise Sex Work in Togliatti City, Russian Federation: HIV Prevalence and Risk Behavior.” Oral presentation, World AIDS Conference Barcelona, Spain, July 7–12, 2002
17.   Nashkhoev, M. R. “Social-Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics of Sex Workers and the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infection in This Group.” Moscow: Central Academic Research Institute of Dermatovenerology, Ministry of Health, Russian Federation. Russian University of Friendship of the People, 2002
18.   O&K Marketing 2000
19.   Oostvogels, R. “Assessment of Commercial Sex Circuits in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.” Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan: UNAIDS, 1997
20.   Oostvogels, R. “Assessment of Commercial Sex Circuits in Karaganda, Kazahkstan.” Karaganda, Kazakhstan: UNDP, 1999
21.   Platt, L. “Profile of Sex Workers in Moscow.” Moscow: AIDS Infoshare, 1998
22.   Platt, L., T. Rhodes, C. M. Lowndes, P. Madden, A. Sarang, L. Mikhailova, A. Renton, Y. Pevzner, K. Sullivan, and M. Khutorskoy. “The Impact of Gender and Sex Work on Sexual and Injecting Risk Behaviors and Their Association with HIV Positivity amongst Injecting Drug Users in an HIV Epidemic in Togliatti City, Russian Federation.” Sexually Transmitted Diseases 32, no. 10(2005): 605–12
23.   Renton, A. M., K. Borisenko, A. Meheus, and A. E. Gromyko. “Epidemics of Syphilis in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 74 (1998): 165–66
24.   Ryabenko, S. “Services for Sex Workers.” Oral presentation, 12th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm, New Delhi, India, April 1–5, 2001
25.   Schonning, S., and A. Buzurukov. “Needs Assessment—Kazakhstan.” Doctors of the World 32 (1999)
26.   Stvilia, K., L. Dershem, S. Gurrola Bonilla, N. Tsereteli, and G. Dallabetta, G. “Characteristics, High-risk Behaviors and Knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS and STI/HIV Prevalence of Street-based Female Sex Workers in Tbilisi, Georgia—2002.” Report on the Behavioral and Biomarker Surveillance Survey, 2003. Available from CEEHRN, Vilnius, Lithuania.
27.   Thomas, R. M. “Assessment of Commercial Sex Scene in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.” Tashkent, Uzbekistan: UNAIDS, 1997
28.   UNAIDS-CAR, 2000
29.   UNAIDS. “UN-facilitated Response to HIV/AIDS, STD and Drug Use in Central Asian Countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan).” Almaty, Kazakhstan: UNAIDS, 1999
30.   UNICEF. “Communication for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Lithuania.” UNICEF, 2001a
31.   UNICEF. “Estonia Rapid Assessment on Obstacles and Opportunities for HIV/AIDS Communication for Young People.” UNICEF, 2001b
32.   UNICEF. “HIV/AIDS in South Eastern Europe.” UNICEF, 2001c
33.   UNICEF. “Rapid Assessment and Response on HIV/AIDS among Especially Vulnerable Young People in Serbia.” Belgrade: UNICEF, 2002, pp. 1–85
34.   UNICEF. “Walking on Two Legs: A Developmental and Emergency Response to HIV/AIDS among Young Drug Users in the CEE/ CIS/Baltic and Central Asia Region.” Review paper. Geneva: UNICEF, 2001d.

Cézanne, Paul (1839-1906)
Further Reading:
1.       Clayson, Hollis. Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991
2.       Pioch, Nicolas. “Paul Cézanne.” WebMuseum, Paris Web site www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/.

Chamberlain-Kahn Bill of 1918
Further Reading:
1.       Hobson, Barbara Meil. Uneasy Virtue: The Politics of Prostitution and the American Reform Tradition. New York: Basic Books, 1987.

Chansons de bilitis (1894)

Chen, Yuanyuan
Further Reading:
1.       Wan, Xianchu. Famous Prostitutes of Ancient China (Zhong Guo Ming Ji). Taipei: Xiapu Press, 1994.

Chicago
Further Reading:
1.       Asbury, Herbert. Gen of the Prairie. New York: Knopf, 1940
2.       Gateley, Edwina. I Hear a Seed Growing. Trabuco Canyon, CA: Source Books, 1990
3.       Linehan, Mary. “Vicious Circle: Prostitution, Reform, and Public Policy in Chicago, 1830–1930.” PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 1991
4.       O’Leary, Claudine, and Olivia Howard. The Prostitution of Women and Girls in Metropolitan Chicago: A Preliminary Prevalence Report. Chicago: Center for Impact Research, 2001
5.       Raphael, Jody. Listening to Olivia: Violence, Poverty, and Prostitution. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004.

Child prostitution
Further Reading:
1.       Ennew, Judith. The Sexual Exploitation of Children. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1986
2.       Ennew, Judith, Kusum Gopal, Janet Heeran, and Heather Montgomery. Children and Prostitution. How Can We Measure and Monitor the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children? Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. 1996. Oslo: Childwatch International Web site http://child-abuse.com/ childhouse/childwatch/cwi/projects/indicators/prostitution/
3.       O’Connell-Davidson, Julia. Children in the Global Sex Trade. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005.

Child prostitution, cultural and religious
Further Reading:
1.       Anderson, Leslie. Restavek: Child Domestic Labor in Haiti. Minneapolis: Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee, 1990
2.       Jaschok, Maria. Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Books, 1988
3.       Vijaisri, Priyadarshini. Recasting the Devadasi: Patterns of Sacred Prostitution in Colonial South India. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, 2004
4.       Wisdom, Mark. The Trokosi System. Accra-North, Ghana: Mercury Press, 2001.

Chinese Literature
Further Reading:
1.       Chang, Kang-i Sun, and Haun Saussy, eds. Women Writers of Traditional China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999
2.       Duval, Jean. A Study of Prostitution in Shanghai at the End of the Qing Dynasty as It Appears in the Shanghai” Novels. Paris: VERLCA, 1972
3.       Guan, Hanqing. “A Sister Courtesan Comes to the Rescue.” George Kao, trans. Renditions 49 (1998): 7–41
4.       Larsen, Jeanne, trans. Brocade River Poems: Selected Works of the Tang Dynasty Courtesan Xue Tao. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987
5.       Liu, Ts’un-yan, and John Minford, eds. Chinese Middlebrow Fiction. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984
6.       Tao, Muning. Qinglou wenxue yu Zhongguo wenhua (“Courtesan Literature and Chinese Civilization”). Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe, 1993
7.       Vitiello, Giovanni. “The Forgotten Tears of the Lord of Longyang: Late Ming Stories of Male Prostitution and Connoisseurship.” In Linked Faiths, ed. Jan A. M. de Meyer and Peter M. Engelfriet. Leiden: Brill, 2000, pp. 227–47
8.       Widmer, Ellen, and Kang-i Sun Chang, eds. Writing Women in Late Imperial China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997
9.       Yao, Ping. “The Status of Pleasure: Courtesan and Literati Connections in T’ang China, 618–907.” Journal of Womens History 14, no. 2 (2002): 26–53.

Clients
Further Reading:
1.       Cline, Patricia Cohen. The Murder of Helen Jewett. New York: Random House, 1998
2.       Ditmore, Melissa. “Trafficking in Lives: The Impact of New International Anti-trafficking Law in Asia.” In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work and Human Rights, ed. Kamala Kempadoo. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press, 2005
3.       Jenkins, Carol. “Cambodian Sex Workers Conduct Their Own Research.” Research for Sex Work 8 (2005): 3–4. http://www.researchforsexwork.org
4.       Perkins, Roberta, ed. Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press, 1991, pp. 133–39
5.       Sycamore, Matt Bernstein. Tricks and Treats: Sex Workers Write about Their Clients. New York: Harrington Park Press, 2000
6.       Thukral, Juhu, and Melissa Ditmore. “Revolving Door: An Analysis of Street-based Prostitution in New York City.” 2003. http://www.sexworkersproject.org/reports/RevolvingDoor. html
7.       Thukral, Juhu, Melissa Ditmore, and Alexandra Murphy. Behind Closed Doors: An Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in New York City. New York: Urban Justice Center, 2005. http://www. sexworkersproject.org/reports/BehindClosedDoors.html
8.       Wilkinson, David, and Gillian Fletcher. Sex Talk—Peer Ethnographic Research with Male Students and Waitresses in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh: PSI, 2002.

Clothing
Further Reading:
1.       Hunt, Alan. Governance of the Consuming Passions: A History of Sumptuary Law. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996
2.       Wiseman Jocelit, Jenna. A Perfect Fit: Clothes, Character, and the Promise of America. New York: Henry Holt, 2001.

Colette (1873-1954)
Further Reading:
1.       Colette. Seven by Colette. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Cudahy, 1955
2.       Hardy, Valérie. Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette. Colette Web site http://www.colette.org/
3.       Herstory: Lesbians in the Arts: Colette. Herstory Web site http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Suite/9048/COLETTEbio.htm.

Colonialisme and prostitution in Africa
Further Reading:
1.       Aderinto, Saheed. “Prostitution: A Social Legacy of Colonialism in Nigeria.” In Nigeria’s Urban History: Past and Present, ed. Hakeem Tijanni. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005
2.       Aderinto, Saheed. “Demobilisation and Repatriation of ‘Undesirables’: Prostitutes, Crime, Law and Reformers in Colonial Nigeria.” In Nigeria’s Urban History: Past and Present, ed. Hakeem Tijanni. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005
3.       Bakwesegha, Christopher. Profiles of Urban Prostitution: A Case Study from Uganda. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1982
4.       Barkow, Jerome. “The Institution of Courtesanship in the Northern States of Nigeria.” Afrique X, no. 1 (1971): 59–73
5.       Hodgson, Dorothy L., and Sheryl A. McCurdy, eds. “Wicked” Women and the Reconfiguration of Gender in Africa. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001
6.       Little, Kenneth. African Women in Towns: An Aspect of Africas Social Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973
7.       Lovejoy, Paul. “Concubinage and the Status of Slaves in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria.” Journal of African History 29 (1988): 245–66
8.       Obbo, Christine. African Women: Their Struggle for Economic Independence. London: Zed Press, 1980
9.       Uchendu, Victor. “Concubinage among Ngwa Igbo of Southern Nigeria.” Africa 35 (1965): 186–97
10.   White, Luise. The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Comfort women
Further Reading and Viewing:
1.       Cohen, Yehudi. “The Sociology of Commercialized Prostitution in Okinawa.” Social Forces 37, no. 2 (1958): 160–68
2.       Hicks, George. The Comfort Women. St. Leonards, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin, 1995
3.       Howard, Keith. True Stories of the Korean Comfort Women. London: Cassell, 1995
4.       Kim-Gibson, Dal Sil. Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women. Parkersburg, IA: Mid-Prairie Books
5.       Noriko, Sekiguchi. Senso Daughters. Distributed by First Run/Icarus Films, 1989. Documentary film.

Commodification
Further Reading:
1.       Buchwald, Emilie, Pamela R. Fletcher, and Martha Roth, eds. Transforming a Rape Culture. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions, 1993
2.       Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Russell Hochschild, eds. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Metropolitan/ Owl Books, 2004
3.       Scranton, Philip, ed. Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Comstock, Anthony (1844-1915)
Further Reading:
1.       Broun, Heywood, and Margaret Leech. Anthony Comstock, Roundsman of the Lord. New York: Boni, 1927. Reprint, Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2004
2.       “People & Events: Anthony Comstock’s ‘Chastity’ Laws.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pill/peopleevents/e_comstock.html.

Condoms
Further Reading:
1.       Planned Parenthood Federation of America. “Birth Control.” Web site http://www. plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/medicalinfo/birthcontrol/pub-condom.xml
2.       Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Contagious Diseases Acts of (1864, 1866, and 1869)
Further Reading:
1.       Self, Helen J. Prostitution, Women and Misuse of the Law: The Fallen Daughters of Eve. London: Frank Cass, 2003
2.       Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Contraception
Further Reading:
1.       Planned Parenthood Federation of America. “A History of Contraceptive Methods.” Web site http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/medicalinfo/birthcontrol/
2.       Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Courtesans
Further Reading:
1.       Richardson, Joanna. The Courtesans: The Demi-monde in Nineteenth-Century France. London: Phoenix Press, 2000
2.       Rosenthal, Margaret F. The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen and Writer in Sixteenth-Century Venice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics)
Further Reading:
1.       Delacoste, Frederique, and Priscilla Alexander, eds. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1998.

Crack
Further Reading:
1.       Bourgois, P. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995
2.       Edlin, Brian R., Kathleen L. Irwin, Sairus Faruque, Clyde B. McCoy, Carl Word, Yolanda Serrano, James A. Inciardi, Benjamin P. Bowser, Robert F. Schilling, Scott D. Holmberg for the Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team. “Intersecting Epidemics—Crack Cocaine Use and HIV Infection among Inner-City Young Adults.” New England Journal of Medicine 331, no. 21 (1994):1422–27
3.       Jones D. L., K. L. Irwin, J. Inciardi, B. Bowser, R. Schilling, C. Word, P. Evans, S. Faruque, H. V. McCoy, and B. R. Edlin. “The High-Risk Sexual Practices of Crack-Smoking Sex Workers Recruited from the Streets of Three American Cities.” The Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team. Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 25, no. 4 (April 1998):187–93
4.       Justice Policy Institute. Cellblocks or Classrooms? Washington, DC: JPI, 2002
5.       McKeganey, N. P. “Prostitution and HIV: What Do We Know and Where Might Research Be Targeted in the Future?” AIDS 8, no. 9 (September 1994):1215–26
6.       Reinarman, C., and H. Levine. “The Crack Attack: Politics and Media in the Crack Scare.” In Crack in America, ed. C. Reinarman and H. Levine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997
7.       Reinarman, C., D. Waldorf, S. Murphy, and H. Levine. “The Contingent Call of the Pipe: Bingeing and Addiction among Heavy Cocaine Smokers.” In Crack in America, ed. C. Reinarman and H. Levine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997
8.       Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.” Office of Applied Studies, NHSDA Series H-25, DHHS Publication No. SMA 04–3964. Rockville, MD: DHHS, 2004
9.       Williams, T. The Cocaine Kids. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Crime
Further Reading:
1.       Donovan, Pamela. No Way of Knowing: Crime, Urban Legends, and the Internet. New York: Routledge, 2003
2.       Human Rights Watch. Ravaging the Vulnerable: Abuses against Persons at High Risk of HIV in Bangladesh. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2003. http://www.hrw.org/ reports/2003/bangladesh0803/
3.       Thukral, Juhu, Melissa Ditmore, and Alexandra Murphy. Behind Closed Doors: An Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in New York City. New York: Urban Justice Center, 2005. http://www.sexworkersproject.org/reports/BehindClosedDoors.html.

Criminisalisation of clients

“D” street
Further Reading:
1.       Savage, Philip. “A Practice of Medicine in San Bernardino in the 1930s.” San Bernardino Historical and Pioneer Society Heritage Tales (1984): 1–25.

Dance hall girls
Further Reading:
1.       Monahan, Sherry. The Wicked West. Tucson, AZ: Rio Nuevo Publishers, 2005.

Debby Doesn’t Do It for Free

Decriminalisation
Further Reading:
1.       Prostitutes Education Network. “Prostitution Law Reform: Defining Terms.” http://www.bayswan.org/defining.html.

Degas, Edgar (1834-1917)
Further Readings:
1.       Armstrong, Carol. Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991
2.       Bernheimer, Charles. Figures of Ill Repute: Representing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989
3.       Broude, Norma. “Degas’s Misogyny.” In Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, ed. Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982
4.       Callen, Anthea. The Spectacular Body: Science, Method and Meaning in the Work of Degas. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995
5.       Clayson, Hollis. Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991
6.       Kendall, Richard, and Griselda Pollock, ed. Dealing with Degas: Representations of Women and the Politics of Vision. London: Pandora, 1992
7.       Nochlin, Linda. “A House Is Not a Home: Degas and the Subversion of the Family.” In Dealing with Degas: Representations of Women and the Politics of Vision, ed. Richard Kendall and Griselda Pollock. London: Pandora, 1992, pp. 43–65.

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Further Reading:
1.       Karras, Ruth Mazo. “Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Legend.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 1, no. 1 (1990): 3–32
2.       Swan, Laura. The Forgotten Desert Mothers: Sayings, Lives, and Stories of Early Christian Women. New York: Paulist Press, 2001
3.       Ward, Benedicta. Harlots of the Desert: A Study of Repentance in Early Monastic Sources. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1987.

Further Reading:
1.       “Barbara.” “It’s a Pleasure Doing Business with You.” Social Text 37 (1993): 11– 22
2.       Bernstein, Elizabeth. “The Meaning of the Purchase: Desire, Demand and the Commerce of Sex.” Ethnography 2, no. 3 (2001): 389–420
3.       Bernstein, Elizabeth. “What’s Wrong with Prostitution: What’s Right with Sex Work? Comparing Markets in Female Sexual Labor.” Hastings Womens Law Journal 10, no. 1 (1999): 91–117
4.       Brents, Barbara G., and Kathryn Hausbeck. “Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk, and Prostitution Policy.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 20, no. 3 (2005): 270–95
5.       Chapkis, Wendy. “Trafficking, Migration, and the Law: Protecting Innocents, Punishing Immigrants.” Gender & Society 17, no. 6 (2003): 923–37
6.       Frank, Katherine. “The Production of Identity and the Negotiation of Intimacy in a ‘Gentleman’s Club.’ ” Sexualities 1, no. 2 (1998): 175–201
7.       La-Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence. “De un Pájaro las dos Alas: Travel Notes of a Queer Puerto Rican in Habana.” GLQ, 3, nos. 1–2 (2002): 7–33
8.       Lerum, Kari. “Sexuality, Power, and Camaraderie in Service Work.” Gender & Society 18, no. 6 (2004): 756–76
9.       McClintock, Anne. “Sex Workers and Sex Work: Introduction.” Social Text 37 (1993a): 1–10
10.   McClintock, Anne. “Maid to Order: Commercial Fetishism and Gender Power.” Social Text 37 (1993b): 87–116
11.   Min, Pyong Gap. “Korean ‘Comfort Women’: The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender, and Class.” Gender & Society 17, no. 6 (2003): 938–57
12.   Moore, Lisa Jean. “The Variability of Safer Sex Messages: What Do the Centers for Disease Control, Sex Manuals, and Sex Workers Do When They Produce Safer Sex?” In Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers, and Johns, ed. James E. Elias, Vern L. Bullough, Veronica Elias, and Gwen Brewer. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998
13.   Nagel, Joane. Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003
14.   Pheterson, Gail. “The Whore Stigma: Female Dishonor and Male Unworthiness.” Social Text 37 (1993): 39–64
15.   Tambe, Ashwini. “The Elusive Ingénue: A Transnational Feminist Analysis of European Prostitution in Colonial Bombay.” Gender & Society 19, no. 2 (2005): 160–79
16.   Tambiah, Yasmin. “Turncoat Bodies: Sexuality and Sex Work under Militarization in Sri Lanka.” Gender & Society 19, no. 2 (2005): 243–61.

Further Reading:
1.       Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India. London: 1954
2.       Calcutta: Rupa & Co. 1981
3.       Kersenboom-Story, Saskia. Nityasumangali: Devadasi Tradition in South India. New Delhi: Motilal Banarisidass, 1987
4.       Vijaisri, Priyadarshini. Recasting the Devadasi: Patterns of Sacred Prostitution in Colonial South India. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, 2004
5.       Zelliot, Eleanor, and Rohini Mokashi-Punekar. Untouchable Saints: An Indian Phenomenon. New Delhi: Manohar, 2005.

Further Reading:
1.       Johnson, Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1952
2.       Schlicke, Paul, ed. Oxford Reader’s Companion to Dickens. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Further Reading:
1.       Anonymous. The Pretty Women of Paris. Ware, UK: Wordsworth Editions, 1996.

Further Reading:
2.       First Offenders Prostitution Program. 2004.Web site of the SAGE Project http:// www.sageprojectinc.org/html/about_services_fopp.htm
3.       Fischer, B., S. Wortley, C. Webster, and M. Kirst. “The Socio-Legal Dynamics and Implications of Diversion: The Case Study of the Toronto ‘John School’ for Prostitution Offenders.” Criminal Justice 2 (2002): 385–410
4.       Nuffield, J. User Report: Diversion Programs for Adults. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada, 1997
5.       Wahab, Stéphanie. “Evaluating the Usefulness of a Prostitution Diversion Project.” Qualitative Social Work 5, no. 1 (2006): 67–92
6.       Wahab, Stéphanie. “Navigating Mixed Theory Projects: Lessons from a Qualitative Evaluation of Salt Lake City’s Prostitution Diversion Project.” Affilia, 20, no. 2 (2005): 203–21
7.       Wahab, Stéphanie, and R. Davis. An Evaluation of Salt Lake Citys Prostitution Diversion Project. Unpublished report. Salt Lake City: University of Utah, College of Social Work, 2004
8.       Walgrave, L. “Diversion? It Depends on What We Divert To: Some Comments on Diversion and the Restorative Alternatives.” In Diversion and Informal Social Control, ed. G. Albrecht and W. Ludwig-Mayerhofer. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995
9.       Wortley, S., B. Fischer, and C. Webster. “Vice Lessons: A Survey of Prostitution Offenders Enrolled in the Toronto John School Diversion Program.” Canadian Journal of Criminology 3 (2002): 227–48.

Further Reading:
1.       Rounding, Virginia. Grandes Horizontales: The Lives and Legends of Four Nineteenth- Century Courtesans. New York: Bloomsbury, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       van de Pol, Lotte C. “Beeld en Werkelijkheid van de Prostitutie in de Zeventiende Eeuw.” In Soete Minne en Helsche Boosheit. Seksuele Voorstellingen in Nederland, 1300–1850, ed. G. Hekma and H. Roodenburg. Nijmegen: SUN, 1988, pp. 109–44.

Further Reading:
1.       Dworkin, Andrea. Intercourse. New York: Free Press, 1987
2.       Dworkin, Andrea. Pornography: Men Possessing Women. New York: Perigee, 1981
3.       Dworkin, Andrea, and Catharine MacKinnon, eds. In Harm’s Way: The Pornography Civil Rights Hearings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Angell, Jeannette. Callgirl. Sag Harbor, NY: Permanent Press, 2004
2.       Koken, Juline A., David S. Bimbi, Jeffrey T. Parsons, and Perry N. Halkitis. “The Experience of Stigma in the Lives of Male Internet Escorts.” Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 16 (2004): 13–32
3.       Quan, Tracy. Diary of a Manhattan Call Girl. New York: Crown, 2001.

Further Reading:
1.       Broberg, G., and N. Roll-Hansen, eds. Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1996
2.       Kevles, Daniel J. “Eugenics and Human Rights: Statistical Data Included.” British Medical Journal 319 (1999): 435–38
3.       Reilly, Philip R. The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991
4.       Sanger, Margaret. “Plan for Peace.” Birth Control Review (1932): 107–8.

Further Reading:
1.       Auerback, Nina. Woman and the Demon: The Life of a Victorian Myth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982
2.       Kunzel, Regina. Fallen Women, Problem Girls: Unmarried Mothers and the Professionalization of Social Work. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993
3.       Watt, George. The Fallen Woman in the Nineteenth-Century English Novel. London: Croom Helm, 1984
4.       Winnifrith, Tom. Fallen Women in the Nineteenth-Century Novel. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Further Reading:
1.       Cleland, John. Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, ed. Peter Sabor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985
2.       Miller, Nancy K. The Heroines Text: Readings in the French and English Novel, 1722–1782. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

Further Reading:
1.       Gilfoyle, Timothy J. City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992.

Further Readings:
1.       Baker, Elizabeth. Technology and Womens Work. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964
2.       Barry, Kathleen. Female Sexual Slavery. New York: New York University Press, 1979
3.       Bell, Laurie, ed. Good Girls/Bad Girls: Feminists and Sex Trade Workers Face to Face. Seattle: Seal Press, 1987
4.       Bishop, Ryan, and Lillian S. Robinson. Night Market: Sexual Cultures and the Thai Economic Miracle. New York: Routledge, 1998
5.       Chancer, Lynn. Reconcilable Differences. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998
6.       Chancer, Lynn. “Prostitution, Feminist Theory, and Ambivalence: Notes from the Sociological Underground.” Social Text 37 (1993): 143–71
7.       Chapkis, Wendy. Live Sex Acts: Women Performing Erotic Labor. New York: Routledge, 1997
8.       Doezema, Jo. “Ouch! Western Feminists’ ‘Wounded Attachment’ to the Third-World Prostitute.” Feminist Review, no. 67 (2001): 16–38
9.       DuBois, Ellen Carol, and Linda Gordon. “Seeking Ecstasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth-Century Feminist Sexual Thought.” In Pleasure and Danger, ed. Carole Vance. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984, pp. 31–49
10.   Dworkin, Andrea. Pornography: Men Possessing Women. New York: Perigee, 1981
11.   Echols, Alice. “The Taming of the Id.” In Pleasure and Danger, ed. Carole Vance. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984, pp. 50–72
12.   English, Dierdre. “The Fear That Feminism Will Free Men First.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983, pp. 477–83
13.   Freeman, Jo. “From Protection to Equal Opportunity: The Revolution in Women’s Legal Status.” In Women, Politics and Change, ed. Louise Tilly and Patricia Gurin. New York: Russell Sage, 1990, pp. 457–81
14.   Kempadoo, Kamala, ed. Sun, Sex and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999
15.   Kempadoo, Kamala, and Jo Doezema, eds. Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. New York: Routledge, 1998
16.   Kempadoo, Kamala, ed., with Bandana Pattanaik and Jyothi Sanghera. Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work and Human Rights. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2005
17.   Kipnis, Laura. Bound and Gagged. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999
18.   Lim, Lin Leam, ed. The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 1998
19.   Nagle, Jill, ed. Whores and Other Feminists. New York: Routledge, 1997
20.   Pendleton, Eva. “Love for Sale: Queering Heterosexuality.” In Whores and Other Feminists, ed. Jill Nagle. New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 73–82
21.   Pheterson, Gail. The Prostitution Prism. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1996
22.   Pheterson, Gail. Vindication of the Rights of Whores. Seattle: Seal Press, 1989
23.   Queen, Carol. Real Live Nude Girl: Chronicles of Sex-Positive Culture. Seattle: Cleis, 1997
24.   Rubin, Gayle. “Thinking Sex.” In Pleasure and Danger, ed. Carole Vance. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984, pp. 267–319
25.   Sharma, Gopal. “Nepal Sets Controls on Alcohol, but Does Not Ban.” Reuters, 25 August 2001
26.   Sloan, L. M. “A Qualitative Study of Women Who Work as Topless Dancers.” Unpublished diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1997
27.   Smith, Joan. “Speaking Out against the New Prissiness.” 5 March 1995
28.   Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001
29.   UN Consultation with UN/IGOs on Trafficking in Persons, Prostitution and the Global Sex Industry. “Trafficking in Persons and the Global Sex Industry: Need for Human Rights Framework.” http://www.imadr.org/project/petw/seminarPETW.pdf
30.   Vance, Carole, ed. Pleasure and Danger. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984
31.   Walkowitz, Judith. “Male Vice and Female Virtue.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983, pp. 419–38
32.   Walkowitz, Judith. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980
33.   Weldon, Jo. “Shut Up, I Can’t Hear You: What Happened at NYU March 2, 2001.” http://www. gstringsforever.com/march2.html
34.   Willis, Ellen. “Feminism, Moralism, and Pornography.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983, pp. 460–67
35.   Wolf, Naomi. Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How It Will Change the 21st Century. New York: Random House, 1993.

Further Reading:
1.       Basinger, Jeanine. A Womans View: How Hollywood Spoke to Women, 1930–1960. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993
2.       Haskell, Molly. From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987
3.       Holmlund, Christine. “Sexuality and Power in Male Doppelganger Cinema: The Case of Clint Eastwood’s Tightrope.Cinema Journal 26, no. 1 (Autumn 1986): 31–42
4.       LaSalle, Mick: Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Further Reading:
1.       Jancovich, Mark et al., eds. Defining Cult Movies: The Cultural Politics of Oppositional Taste. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003
2.       Mendik, Xavier, and Graham Harper. Unruly Pleasures: The Cult Film and Its Critics. San Fransisco: Last Gasp, 2000
3.       Peary, Danny. Cult Movies. New York: Gramercy, 1998.

Further Reading:
1.       Parish, James Robert. Prostitution in Hollywood Films: Plots, Critiques, Casts, and Credits for 389 Theatrical and Made-for-Television Releases. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1992
2.       Stubbs, Liz. Documentary Filmmakers Speak. New York: Allworth Press, 2002.

Further Reading:
1.       Grant, W. R. Post-Soul Black Cinema: Discontinuities, Innovations, and Breakpoints, 1970–1995. New York: Routledge, 2004
2.       Massood, Paula J. Black City Cinema: African American Urban Experiences in Film. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003
3.       Schaefer, Eric. “Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!”: A History of Exploitation Films, 1919–1959. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

Further Reading:
1.       Anbinder, Tyler. Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood That Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World’s Most Notorious Slum. New York: Plume, 2002
2.       Gilfoyle, Timothy J. City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992
3.       Stansell, Christine. City of Women, Sex and Class in New York, 1789–1860. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Further Reading:
1.       Foat, Ginny. Never Guilty, Never Free. New York: Random House, 1985
2.       Hawkes, Ellen. Feminism on Trial: The Ginny Foat Case and the Future of the Women’s Movement. New York: William Morrow, 1986.

Further Reading:
1.       Alexander, Priscilla. “Prostitution: Still a Difficult Issue for Feminists.” In Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry, ed. Frederique Delacoste and Priscilla Alexander. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1987
2.       Barry, Kathleen. Female Sexual Slavery. New York: New York University Press, 1979
3.       Bell, Shannon. Reading, Writing and Rewriting the Prostitute Body. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994
4.       Doezema, Jo. “Forced to Choose: Beyond the Voluntary v. Forced Prostitution Dichotomy.” In Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition, ed. Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema. New York: Routledge, 1998, pp. 34–50
5.       Dworkin, Andrea. Intercourse. New York: Free Press, 1987
6.       Fysh, Geoffrey. “Sex Work, HIV and Money.” MA thesis, Nepean University, Western Sydney, Australia, 1995
7.       Hicks, R. “Women in Tourism: A Case Study of Bukit Lawang.” Honors thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, 1994
8.       Images Asia. “Burmese Women Sex Workers in Thailand.” Oral Presentation for NGO Forum on Women, Beijing, China, 30 August–8 September 1995. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Images Asia, 1995
9.       Jennaway M. “Strangers, Sex and the State in Paradise: The Engineering of Balinese Tourism and Its Economy of Pleasure.” Oral presentation for the State, Sexuality and Reproduction in Asia and the Pacific Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, July 1993
10.   Jolin, A. “On the Backs of Working Prostitutes: Feminist Theory and Prostitution Policy.” Crime & Delinquency 40, no. 1 ( January 1994): 69–83
11.   MacKinnon, Catherine. Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987
12.   Manderson, L. “Public Sex Performances in Patpong and Explorations of the Edges of Imagination.” Journal of Sex Research 29, no. 4 (1992): 451–76
13.   Murray, Alison. “Debt Bondage and Trafficking: Don’t Believe the Hype.” In Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition, ed. Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema. New York: Routledge, 1998, pp. 51–64
14.   Murray, Alison. No Money No Honey: A Study of Street Traders and Prostitutes in Jakarta. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991
15.   Murray, Alison. Pink Fits: Sex, Subcultures and Discourses in the Asia-Pacific. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, Monash University Press, 2001
16.   Overs, Cheryl. “Sex Work, HIV and the State: An Interview with Nel Druce.” Feminist Review 48 (1994): 114–21
17.   Perkins, Roberta, ed. Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press, 1991, pp. 133–39
18.   Porter, D. “A Plague on the Borders: HIV, Development and Traveling Identities in the Golden Triangle.” In Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific, ed. L. Manderson and M. Jolly. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997
19.   Sloan, L. “Golden Handcuffs: Voices of Women Who Work in the Sex Trade Industry.” Oral Presentation at Representing Sexualities Conference, Sydney University, Sydney, Australia, 8–10 December 1995
20.   St. James, Margo. “The Reclamation of Whores.” In Good Girls/Bad Girls: Feminists and Sex Trade Workers Face to Face, ed. Laurie Bell. Seattle: Seal Press, 1987.

Further Reading:
1.       Burchell, S. C. Upstart Empire: Paris during the Brilliant Years of Louis Napoleon. London: Macdonald, 1971
2.       Christiansen, Rupert. Tales of the New Babylon: Paris 1869–1875. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994
3.       Fondation Napoleon Web site, Dedicated to the History of the First and Second Empires. www.napoleonica.org/us/na/na_fondation.html
4.       Harsin, Jill. Policing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Paris. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985
5.       Price, Roger D. Napoleon III and the Second Empire. New York: Routledge, 1997
6.       Richardson, Joanna. La Vie Parisienne 1852–1870. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1971.

Further Reading:
1.       Jones, Ann Rosalind, and Margaret Rosenthal, eds. and trans. Veronica Franco: Poems and Selected Letters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999
2.       Prioleau, Betsy. Seductress: Women Who Ravished the World and Their Lost Art of Love. New York: Penguin Group, 2003
3.       Rosenthal, Margaret F. The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen and Writer in Sixteenth-Century Venice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Further Reading:
1.       Chesler, Ellen. Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. New York: Anchor Books. 1992
2.       Goldman, Emma. “Marriage and Love.” http:// www.radio4all.org/redblack/books/marriageandlove.html
3.       Passet, Joan. Sex Radicals and the Quest for Womans Equality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003
4.       Spurlock, John. Free Love: Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America, 1825–1860. New York: New York University Press, 1988
5.       Underhill, Lois B. The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works, 1995.

Further Reading:
1.       Bernheimer, Charles. Figures of Ill Repute: Representing Prostitution in Nineteenth- Century France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989
2.       Clayson, Hollis. Painted Love: Prostitution in the French Art of the Impressionist Era. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991
3.       Corbin, Alain. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France after 1850. Cambridge, MD: Harvard University Press, 1990
4.       Matlock, Jann. Scenes of Seduction: Prostitution, Hysteria, and Reading Difference in Nineteenth-Century France. New York: Columbia United Press, 1994
5.       Merians, Linda, ed. The Secret Malady: Venereal Disease in Eighteenth-Century Britain and France. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996
6.       Otis, Leah Lydia. Prostitution and Medieval Society: The History of an Urban Institution in Languedoc. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985
7.       Roberts, Nickie. Whores in History: Prostitution in Western Society. New York: HarperCollins 1993.

Further Reading:
1.       Gabriel García Márquez: Macondo. http://www.themodernword.com/gabo/ index.html
2.       Minta, Stephen. García Márquez: Writer of Colombia. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Further Reading:
1.       Aihara, Kyoko. Geisha. London: Carlton Books, 1999
2.       Cobb, Jodi. Geisha: The Life, the Voices, the Art. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995
3.       Dalby, Liza Crihfield. Geisha. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983
4.       Downer, Lesley. Women of the Pleasure Quarters: The Secret History of the Geisha. New York: Broadway Books, 2001
5.       Gallagher, John. Geisha: A Unique World of Tradition, Elegance and Art. New York: PRC Publishing, 2003
6.       Iwasaki, Mineko. Geisha: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002
7.       Masuda, Sayo. Trans. G. G. Rowley. Autobiography of a Geisha. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Further Reading:
1.       Foley, Brenda. “Naked Politics: Erie, PA v. the Kandyland Club.” NWSA Journal 14, no. 2 (2002):1–17
2.       Frank, Katherine. G-Strings and Sympathy: Strip Club Regulars and Male Desire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002
3.       Hanna, Judith Lynne. “Undressing the First Amendment and Corsetting the Striptease Dancer.” Drama Review 42, no. 2 (1998): 38–69
4.       Hanna, Judith Lynne. “Toying with the Striptease Dancer and the First Amendment.” Play and Culture Studies. Vol. 2, edited by S. Reifel. Westport, CT: Ablex, 199

Further Reading:
1.       Balko, Radley. “Sweatshops and Globalization.” A World Connected Web site http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/525.html
2.       Sangera, Jyoti. “In the Belly of the Beast: Sex Trade, Prostitution and Globalization.” Oral Presentation to the Asia Pacific Forum on Trafficking, Bangkok, Thailand, 17–18 February 1997 http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/Organizations/ healthnet/SAsia/repro2/jyoti_sangera.htm.

Further Reading:
1.       “ ‘Gold Digging’ Ban Signed by Olson: Breach of Promise Suits Barred by Law.” San Francisco Examiner, 3 May 1939, pp. 1–2
2.       Morris, Sylvia Jukes. Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce. New York: Random House, 1997
3.       Rosenblum, Constance. Gold Digger: The Outrageous Life and Times of Peggy Hopkins Joyce. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2000
4.       Sharrar, Jack F. Avery Hopwood: His Life and Plays. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

Further Reading:
1.       Goldman, Emma. “The Traffic in Women.” In Anarchism and Other Essays. 1917. Reprint, Garden City, NY: Dover, 1969.

Further Reading:
1.       Bellanger, Marguerite. Confessions: Mémoires anecdotiques. Paris: Librairie Populaire, 1882
2.       Colombier, Marie. Mémoires: Fin d’Empire. Paris: Flammarion, 1898
3.       Crouch, Emma Elizabeth. The Memoirs of Cora Pearl. London: George Vickers, 1886
4.       Petit glossaire de la prostitution. Chimères Web site www.insenses.org/chimeres/glossaire.html
5.       Richardson, Joanna. The Courtesans: The Demi-monde in Nineteenth-Century France. London: Phoenix Press, 2000
6.       Rounding, Virginia. Grandes Horizontales: The Lives and Legends of Four Nineteenth-Century Courtesans. New York: Bloomsbury, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       Arceneaux, Pamela. “Guidebooks to Sin: The Blue Books of Storyville.” Louisiana History 28 (1987): 397–405
2.       Gilfoyle, Timothy J. City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790–1920. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992.

Further Reading:
1.       Carlton, Charles. Royal Mistresses. London: Routledge, 1990
2.       Parke, Derek. Nell Gwyn. Thurpp, Stroud: Sutton, 2000
3.       Wilson, John H. Nell Gwyn, Royal Mistress. New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1952.

Further Reading:
1.       Bericht der Österreichischen Liga zur Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels über das Vereinsjahr Vienna: Privately Printed, 1908
2.       Finger, Ernest, and A[nton] Baumgarten. Sammlung der für die Bekämpfung des Mädchenhandels in Betracht kommenden österreichischen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Erlässe. Vienna: Privately Published, 1909
3.       Forrai, Judit. “Prostitution at the Turn of the Century in Budapest.” In Civilization, Sexuality and Social Life in Historical Context: The Hidden Face of Urban Life. Budapest: Uj-aranydíd Kft, 1996, pp. 155–62
4.       Hügel, Franz Seraph. Zur Geschichte, Statistik und Regelung der Prostitution Sozial-medizinische Studien in ihrer praktischen Behandlung und Anwendung auf Wien und andere Grossstädte. Vienna: Zamarski u. Dittmarsch, 1865
5.       Jušik, Karin J. Auf der suche nach der Verlorenen. Die Prostitutionsdebatten im Wien der Jahrhundertwende. Vienna: Löcker Verlag, 1994
6.       Kukla, Karel Ladislav. Konec bahna Prahy. Prague: Václav Svec, 1927
7.       Lenderová, Milena. Chtyla patrola aneb prostituce za Rakouska i Republiky. Prague: Karolinum, 2002
8.       Schank, Josef. Die amtlichen Vorschriften, betreffend die Prostitution in Wien, in ihrer administrativen, sanitären und strafgerichtlichen Anwendung. Vienna: Josef Safar, 1899
9.       Zimmerman, Susan. “‘Making a Living from Disgrace’: The Politics of Prostitution, Female Poverty and Urban Gender Codes in Budapest and Vienna, 1860–1920.” In The City in Central Europe: Culture and Society from 1800 to the Present, ed. Malcolm Gee et al. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1999, pp. 175–95.

Further Reading:
1.       Erickson, P., D. Riley, Y. Cheung, and P. O’Hare, eds. Harm Reduction: A New Direction for Policies and Programs. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997
2.       Harm Reduction Coalition Web site http://www.harmreduction.org/
3.       Heather, N., A. Wodak, E. Nadelmann, and P. O’Hare, P., eds. Psychoactive Drugs and Harm Reduction: From Faith to Science. London: Whurr, 1993
4.       Marlatt, Allan, ed. Harm Reduction: Pragmatic Strategies for Managing High Risk Behaviors. New York: Guilford Press, 1998
5.       Overs, Cheryl, and Paulo Longo. Making Sex Work Safe. London: Russell, 1997
6.       Sex Trade Opportunities for Risk Minimization Web site http://www.thestormproject.org
7.       Stern, L. S. Tricks of the Trade. Harm Reduction Coalition Web site http://www.harmreduction.org/.

Further Reading:
1.       Cabezas, Amalia. “Discourses of Prostitution: The Case of Cuba.” In Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition, ed. Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema. New York: Routledge, 1998, pp. 79–86
2.       Fosado, Gisela. “Gay Sex Tourism, Ambiguity, and Transnational Love in Havana.” In Cuba Transnational, ed. Damien Fernandez. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004, pp. 201–40.

Further Reading:
1.       McCall, Andrew. The Medieval Underworld. New York: Dorset, 1979.

Further Reading:
1.       Davidson, James N. Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998
2.       Kurke, Leslie. Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999
3.       McClure, Laura. Courtesans at the Table: Gender and the Greek Literary Tradition in Athenaeus. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Further Reading:
1.       Brown, Cecil. Stagolee Shot Billy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003
2.       Queeley, Andrea. “Hip Hop and the Aesthetics of Criminalization.” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 5, no. 1 (2003): 1–14
3.       Slim, Iceberg. Pimp: The Story of My Life. Reprint, Los Angeles: Holloway House, 1987
4.       Watkins, S. Craig. Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Popular Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement. Boston: Beacon Press, 2005.

Further Reading:
1.       Goud, Ramesh. “Annual Report of SOS Foundation.” Nashik, India, 2003
2.       SANGRAM Annual Report 2004. Sangli, India
3.       “Of Veshyas, Vamps, Whores and Women Point of View and SANGRAM.” Report 2005. Sangli, India.

Further Reading:
1.       Albert, Alexa. Brothel: Mustang Ranch and Its Women. New York: Random House, 2001
2.       Longo, Paulo, and Melissa Ditmore. “100% Condom Use Programs: Empowerment or Abuse?” Research for Sex Work 6 (2003): 3–5
3.       Murray, Alison. Pink Fits: Sex, Subcultures and Discourses in the Asia-Pacific. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, Monash University Press, 2001
4.       Overs, Cheryl, and Paulo Longo. Making Sex Work Safe. London: Russell, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Brown, Larry K. The Hog Ranches of Wyoming: Liquor, Lust and Lies under Sagebrush Skies. Glendo, WY: High Plains Press, 1995.

Further Reading:
1.       Hollander, Xaviera. Child No More: A Memoir. New York: Regan Books, 2002
2.       Hollander, Xaviera. The Happy Hooker: My Own Story. New York: ReganBooks, 2002.

Further Reading:
1.       Barnard, Dean Stanton, ed. Holland’s Leaguer. The Hague: Mouton, 1970, pp. 1–46.

Further Reading:
1.       Wu, Hao. Xiangjiang feng yue shi, Xi yue wen hua bian ji wei yuan. Hui, ed. Hong Kong: SCMP Book Publishing, 2001
2.       Yizhong. Xiangang huang ye. Xiangang: Hai shan tu shu gong si, 1985
3.       Zi Teng. Research Report on Mainland Chinese Sex Workers: Hong Kong, Macau & Town B in Pearl River Delta. Hong Kong: Zi Teng, 2000
4.       Zi Teng. Research on the Situation of the Chinese Migrant Sex Workers in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Zi Teng, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       Fee, Elizabeth. “Sin vs. Science: Venereal Disease in Baltimore in the Twentieth Century.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 43 (1988): 141–64
2.       Kessler, Ronald. The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002
3.       Powers, Richard G. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1987
4.       Theoharis, Athen G. The FBI and American Democracy: A Brief Critical History. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       Jordan, Ann D. The Annotated Guide to the Complete UN Trafficking Protocol. Washington, DC: International Human Rights Law Group, 2002
2.       Kempadoo, Kamala, and Jo Doezema, eds. Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Further Reading:
1.       Gronewald, Sue. Beautiful Merchandise: Prostitution in China, 1860–1936. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1985
2.       Mackerras, Colin. Chinese Theater: From Its Origins to the Present Day. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989
3.       Wang, Shunu. Zhongguo changji shi (“A History of Entertainer-Prostitutes in China”). Shanghai: Shanghai shudian, 1995
4.       Wu, Cuncun. Homoerotic Sensibilities in Late Imperial China. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       Bernstein, Laurie. Sonias Daughters: Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Further Reading:
1.       Dalla, Rochelle. “Exposing the ‘Pretty Woman’ Myth: A Qualitative Examination of the Lives of Female Streetwalking Prostitutes.” Journal of Sex Research 37, no. 4 (2000): 344–53
2.       James, Jennifer, and Jane Meyerding. “Early Sexual Experience and Prostitution.” American Journal of Psychiatry 234 (1977): 12
3.       Perkins, Roberta. Working Girls: Prostitutes, Their Life and Social Control. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991
4.       Silbert, Mimi, and A. M. Pines. “Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.” Social Work 28 (1983): 285–89.

Further Reading:
1.       Cohen, Sherrill. The Evolution of Women’s Asylums since 1500: From Refuges for Ex-prostitutes to Shelters for Battered Women. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992
2.       Lloyd, Sarah. “Pleasure’s ‘Golden Bait’: Prostitution, Poverty and the Magdalen Hospital in Eighteenth-Century London.” History Workshop Journal 41 (1996): 50–70
3.       Mahood, Linda. The Magdalenes: Prostitution in Nineteenth Century London. New York: Routledge, 1990
4.       Scott, John. How Modern Governments Made Prostitution a Social Problem: Creating a Responsible Prostitute Population. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2005
5.       Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Further Reading:
1.       Koken, Juline A., David S. Bimbi, Jeffrey T. Parsons, and Perry N. Halkitis. “The Experience of Stigma in the Lives of Male Escorts.” Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 16 (2004): 13–32
2.       Parsons, Jeffrey, Juline Koken, David Bimbi, and Perry Halkitis. “Looking beyond HIV: Eliciting Community and Individual Needs of Male Escorts.” Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality
3.       Parsons, Jeffrey, Juline Koken, David Bimbi, and Perry Halkitis. “The Use of the Internet by Gay and Bisexual Male Escorts: Sex Workers as Sex Educators.” AIDS Care16 (2004): 1–15.

Further Reading:
1.       Campbell, Russell. “‘Fallen Woman’ Prostitute Narratives in Cinema.” http://www. latrobe.edu.au/screeningthepast/firstrelease/fr1199/rcfr8b.htm
2.       Drew, William M. D. W. Griffiths Intolerance: Its Genesis and Its Vision. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1986.

Further Reading:
1.       Begg, Paul, Martin Fido, and Keith Skinner. The Jack the Ripper A-Z. Terra Alta, WV: Headline, 1996
2.       Metropolitan Police Service Web site “The Enduring Mystery of Jack the Ripper.” http://www.met.police.uk/history/ripper.htm
3.       Sugden, Philip. The Complete History of Jack the Ripper. London: Constable and Robinson, 1995.

Further Reading:
1.       Cohen, Patricia Cline. The Murder of Helen Jewett. New York: Random House, 1998.

Further Reading:
1.       Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India. London: 1954. Reprint, Calcutta: Rupa & Co., 1981
2.       Chaudhuri, Nirad C. The Continent of Circe: An Essay on the Peoples of India. London: Chatto and Windus, 1975.

Further Reading:
1.       Mahipati’s Bhakativijaya, trans. Justin E. Abbott and N. R. Godbole as Stories of Indian Saints. Vol II. Pune, India, 1933. Reprint, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1982.

Further Reading:
1.       Granatstein, J. L., and David Stafford. Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1990.

Further Reading:
1.       Longstreet, Stephen, ed. Nell Kimball: Her Life as an American Madam by Herself. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

Further Reading:
1.       Simmons, Sherwin. “Ernst Kirchner’s Streetwalkers: Art, Luxury, and Immorality in Berlin, 1913–1916.” Art Bulletin 82, no.1 (March 2000): 117–48
2.       Sykora, Katharina. Weiblichkeit, Grossstadt, Moderne: Ernst Ludwig Kirchners Berliner Strassenszenen 1913–1915. Berlin: Museumspädagogischer Dienst Berlin, 1996.

Further Reading:
1.       Giddis, Diane. “The Divided Woman: Bree Daniels in Klute.” Women & Film, 3–4, no. 1 (1973): 57–61
2.       Gledhill, Christine. “Klute 1: A Contemporary Film Noir and Feminist Criticism.” and “Klute 2: Feminism and Klute.” In Women in Film Noir, ed. E. Ann Kaplan. London: British Film Institute, 1998
3.       Goldstone, Bobbie. “Klute, Again.” Off Our Backs, 31 October 1971, p. 34
4.       Lukas, Karli. “Klute.” Senses of Cinema Web site http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/ cteq/01/13/klute.html.

Further Reading:
1.       Damodaragupta. Kuttani-mata, ed. T. M. Tripathi. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1944
2.       Shastri, Ajaya Mitra. India as Seen in the Kuttani-mata of Damodarragupta. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 1975.

Further Reading:
1.       Hickman, Katie. Courtesans: Money, Sex and Fame in the Nineteenth Century. New York: William Morrow, 2003
2.       Ringdal, Nils Johan. Love for Sale: A World History of Prostitution. Trans. Richard Daly. New York: Grove Press, 2004
3.       Rounding, Virginia. Grandes Horizontales: The Lives and Legends of Four Nineteenth-Century Courtesans. New York: Bloomsbury, 2003.

Further Reading:
1.       Chanan, Michael. The Cuban Image. London: British Film Institute, l983
2.       Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media 44, no 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.frameworkonline.com/about1. htm
3.       Johnson, Randal, and Robert Stam, eds. Brazilian Cinema. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, l982
4.       King, John. Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. New York: Verso, 1990
5.       Lopez, Ana. “A Short History of Latin American Film History.” Journal of Film and Video 37, no. 1 (Winter 1985), pp. 55–69.

Further Reading:
1.       Castillo, Debra A. Easy Women: Sex and Gender in Modern Mexican Fiction. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 1998
2.       Schwartz, Kessel. “The Whorehouse and the Whore in Spanish American Fiction of the 1960s.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 15, no. 4 (November 1973): 472–87.

Further Reading:
1.       Butler, Anne M. Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865–90. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1985.

Further Reading:
1.       Self, Helen J. Prostitution, Women and Misuse of the Law: The Fallen Daughters of Eve. New York: Frank Cass, 2003.

Further Reading:
2.       Dangerous Bedfellows, ed. Policing Public Sex. Boston: South End Press, 1996
3.       Delacoste, Frederique, and Priscilla Alexander, eds. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1988
4.       Leigh, Carol, a.k.a. Scarlot Harlot. Unrepentant Whore. San Francisco: Last Gasp, 2004
5.       Nagle, Jill, ed. Whores and Other Feminists. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Online News Hour Extended Interview Transcript.” http://www.pbs.org/ newshour/health/aids/brazil/leite.html
2.       “Online News Hour Straight Talk, 16 July 2003.” http:// www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/july-dec03/brazil_7–16.html.

Further Reading:
1.       Wan, Xianchu. Famous Prostitutes of Ancient China (Zhong Guo Ming Ji). Taipei: Xiapu Press, 1994.

Further Reading:
1.       Albert, Alexa E. Brothel. New York: Random House, 2001
2.       Brents, Barbara G., and Kathryn Hausbeck. “State-Sanctioned Sex: Negotiating Formal and Informal Regulatory Practices in Nevada Brothels.” Sociological Perspectives 44 (2001): 307–32
3.       Kuo, Lenore. Prostitution Policy, Revolutionizing Practice through a Gendered Perspective. New York: New York University Press, 2002.

Further Reading:
1.       Wan, Xianchu. Famous Prostitutes of Ancient China (Zhong Guo Ming Ji). Taipei: Xiapu Press, 1994.

Further Reading:
1.       Dickson, Sandra. Sex in the City: Mapping Commercial Sex across London. London: The Poppy Project, 2004
2.       Henriques, Fernando. Prostitution in Europe and the Americas. Vol. II of Prostitution and Society. New York: Citadel Press, 1965
3.       McCall, Andrew. The Medieval Underworld. London: A. M. Heath, 1979
4.       Walkowitz, Judith R. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Further Reading:
1.       Longo, Paulo. “From Subjects to Partners: Experience of a Project in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.” Research for Sex Work 7 (2004): 9–10. Network of Sex Work Projects Web site http://www.nswp.org/pdf/R4SW-07.PDF.

Further Reading:
1.       Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation Web site http:///www.aimmed. org
2.       Heimann, Jim. Sins of the City: The Real Los Angeles Noir. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1999
3.       International Sex Worker Foundation for Art, Culture and Education Web site http://www. iswface.org
4.       Pitt, Leonard. Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and the County. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       The Complete Linda Lovelace Web site http://www.completelindalovelace.com/
2.       Danville, Eric. The Complete Linda Lovelace. New York: Power Process Publishing, 2001
3.       Lovelace, Linda. Ordeal. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1980.

Further Reading:
1.       Sidwell, Keith. Chattering Courtesans and Other Sardonic Sketches. New York: Penguin, 2005.

Further Reading:
1.       Tatar, Maria. “‘Das war ein Stuck Arbeit!’: Jack the Ripper and Wedekind’s Lulu Plays.” In Themes and Structures: Studies in German Literature from Goethe to the Present, ed. Alexander Stephan. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1997, pp. 164–87
2.       Wedekind, Frank. Lulu. Trans. Nicholas Wright. London: Nick Hern Books, 2001
3.       Wedekind, Frank. The Lulu Plays and Other Sex Tragedies. Trans. Stephen Spender. London: John Calder, 1972.

Further Reading:
1.       Albert, Alexa. Brothel: Mustang Ranch and Its Women. New York: Ballatine Books, 2002
2.       Delacoste, Frederique and Alexander, Priscilla, eds. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1998
3.       Fleiss, Heidi. Pandering. Los Angeles: One Hour Entertainment, 2003
4.       Heyl, Barbara Sherman. The Madam as Entrepreneur: Career Management in House Prostitution. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1979
5.       Nagle, Jill, ed. Whores and Other Feminists. New York: Routledge, 1997
6.       Shaner, Lora. Madam: Inside a Nevada Brothel. Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse Publishing, 2001
7.       Weitzer, Ronald, ed. Sex for Sale: Prostitution, Pornography and the Sex Industry. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Further Reading and Viewing:
1.       Cohen, Sherrill. The Evolution of Womens Asylums since 1500: From Refuges for Ex-prostitutes to Shelters for Battered Women. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992
2.       Finnegan, Frances. Do Penance or Perish: Magdalen Asylums in Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
3.       Luddy, Maria. Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth Century Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995
4.       Mahood, Linda. The Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century. London: Routledge, 1990
5.       Roberts, Nickie. Whores in History. London: Grafton, 1992
6.       Ruggles, Steven. “Fallen Women: The Inmates of the Magdalen Society Asylum of Philadelphia, 1836–1908.” Journal of Social History 16, no. 3 (Spring 1983): 65–82
7.       Sex in a Cold Climate. [Documentary] Dir. Stephen Humphries. Testimony Films for Channel Four Television Corporation, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Butler, Josephine. “The Double-Standard of Morality.” Philanthropist, October 1886
2.       Jones, Victor Pierce. Saint or Sensationalist: The Story of W. T. Stead. Chichester: Gooday, 1988
3.       Petrie, Glen. A Singular Iniquity: The Campaigns of Josephine Butler. New York: Viking Press, 1971
4.       [William T. Stead]. “The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon.” Pall Mall Gazette, July 1885
5.       Stead, William T. If Christ Came to Chicago: A Plea for the Union of All Who Love in the Service of All Who Suffer. Chicago: Laird and Lee, 1894
6.       Walkowitz, Judith R. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Further Reading:
1.       Ackerly, J. R. My Father and Myself. New York: Coward-McCann, 1968
2.       Aggleton, Peter, ed. Men Who Sell Sex: International Perspectives on Male Prostitution and HIV/AIDS. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999
3.       Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay World, 1890–1940. New York: HarperCollins, 1994
4.       Friedman, Mack. Strapped for Cash: A History of American Hustler Culture. San Francisco: Alyson Publications, 2003
5.       Gerassi, John. The Boys of Boise: The True Story of a Homosexual Scandal Exploited for Political Purposes. New York: MacMillan, 1966
6.       Hall, Richard. “Gay Fiction Comes Home.” The New York Times, 19 June 1988, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE3D91330F93AA2 5755C0A96E948260
7.       Hirschfeld, Magnus. The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Translated by Michael Lombardi-Nash. 1913. Reprint, Amherst, NY: Promethius Books, 2000
8.       Humphreys, Laud. “New Styles in Homosexual Manliness.” In The Homosexual Dialectic, ed. Joseph McCaffrey. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 65–83. Originally published in Transaction 8 (March-April 1971): 38ff.
9.       Hunt, Morton. Gay: What You Should Know about Homosexuality. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977
10.   Kaye, Kerwin. “Male Prostitution in the Twentieth Century: Pseudohomosexuals, Hoodlum Homosexuals, and Exploited Teens.” Journal of Homosexuality 46, no. 1/2 (2003): 1–77
11.   Kaye, Kerwin. “Sex and the Unspoken in Male Street Prostitution.” Journal of Homosexuality (in press)
12.   Leyland, Winston, ed. “Winston Leyland Interviews John Rechy.” Gay Sunshine Interviews. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1978. Originally published in Gay Sunshine (23 November/ December 1974)
13.   Maynard, Steven. “‘Horrible Temptations’: Sex, Men, and Working-Class Male Youth in Urban Ontario, 1890–1935.” Canadian Historical Review 78, no. 2 ( June 1997): 191–235
14.   McNamara, Robert. The Times Square Hustler: Male Prostitution in New York City. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994
15.   Pettiway, Leon. Honey, Honey, Miss Thang: Being Black, Gay, and on the Streets. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996
16.   Rechy, John. City of Night. New York: Grove Press, 1963
17.   Reiss, Albert, Jr. “The Social Integration of Queers and Peers.” In Deviance: The Interactionist Perspective, 5th ed., ed. Earl Rubington and Martin Weinberg. New York: Macmillan, 1987, pp. 352–60. Reprinted in The Problem of Homosexuality in Modern Society, ed. Hendrik Ruitenbeek, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1963, pp. 249–78, and in Sexual Deviance, ed. John Gagnon and William Simon. New York: Harper and Row, 1967, pp. 197–228. Originally published in Social Problems 9, no. 2 (Fall 1961): 102, 104, 106–9, 112–19
18.   Rocke, Michael. Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994
19.   Steward, Samuel (as Phil Andros). $tud. Boston: Alyson Publications, 1966
20.   Steward, Samuel (as Phil Andros). My Brother, the Hustler. San Francisco: Gay Parisian Press, 1970
21.   Steward, Samuel (as Phil Andros). San Francisco Hustler. San Francisco: Gay Parisian Press, 1970
22.   Visano, Livy. This Idle Trade. Concord, Ontario: VitaSana Books, 1987
23.   Weeks, Jeffrey. Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain, from the Nineteenth Century to the Present. London: Quartet Books, 1977
24.   Weeks, Jeffrey. “Inverts, Perverts, and Mary- Annes: Male Prostitution and the Regulation of Homosexuality in England in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.” In The Gay Past: A Collection of Historical Essays, ed. Salvatore Licata and Robert Peterson. New York: Haworth Press, 1985, pp. 113–34. Also published in Duberman et al., eds., Hidden from History, New York: New American Library, 1989, pp. 195–211. Originally published in Journal of Homosexuality 6, no.1/2 (Fall/Winter 1980/1)
25.   West, Donald J., in association with Buz de Villiers. Male Prostitution. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1993.

Further Reading:
1.       Anonymous. My Secret Life. Edited by James Kincaid. 1888–94. Abridged reprint, New York: Signet Classics, 1996
2.       Anonymous. Sins of the Cities of the Plain
3.       or Confessions of a Mary- Anne. 1881. Reprint, New York: Masquerade Books, 1992
4.       Anonymous. Teleny: The Reverse of the Medal. Edited by H. Montgomery Hyde. 1893. Reprint, London: Icon, 1966
5.       “1889: Scandal in Cleveland Street.” http://www.gayhistory.com/rev2/events/1889.htm
6.       Huysmans, Joris-Karl. Á Rebours. 1884. Reprint, London: Oxford University Press, 1998
7.       Hyde, H. Montgomery. The Cleveland Street Scandal. New York: Coward, McGann and Geoghegan, 1976
8.       Norton, Richard. “The Vere Street Coterie.” Queer Culture Web site http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/vere.htm
9.       Robb, Graham. Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 2004
10.   Weeks, Jeffrey. “Inverts, Perverts, and Mary Annes: Male Prostitution and the Regulation of Homosexuality in England in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries.” In Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past, eds. Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncery, Jr. New York: New American Library, 1989.

Further Reading:
1.       De Marco, J. “The World of Gay Strippers.” Gay and Lesbian Review (March/April 2002): 12–14
2.       Escoffier, Jeffrey. “Porn Star/Stripper/Escort: Economic and Sexual Dynamics in a Sex Work Career.” In Male Sex Workers, ed. Todd Morrison. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, in press
3.       Liepe-Levinson, Katherine. Strip Show: Performances of Gender and Desire. New York: Routledge, 2002
4.       Payton, Lewis. “Strip Tease.” Genre ( July 2003): 50–54.

Further Reading:
1.       Cook, Richard I. “‘The Great Leviathan of Leachery’: Mandeville’s Modest Defence of Publick Stews (1724).” In Mandeville Studies: New Explorations in the Art and Thought of Dr. Bernard Mandeville 1670–1733, ed. I. Primer. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1975, pp. 22–23
2.       Mandell, Laura. “Bawds and Merchants: Engendering Capitalist Desires.” English Literary History 59, no. 1 (1992): 107–23
3.       Mandeville, Bernard (attributed author). A Modest Defence of Publick Stews. London, 1724. Facsimile reprint, Los Angeles: Augustan Reprint Society (no. 162), 1973
4.       Mandeville, Bernard. The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits. Edited by F. B. Kaye. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924. Reprint, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1988
5.       Rogal, Samuel J. “The Selling of Sex: Mandeville’s Modest Defence of Publick Stews.Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 5 (1976): 141–50.

Further Reading:
1.       Grittner, Frederick K. White Slavery Myth, Ideology, and American Law. New York: Garland, 1990
2.       Langum, David J. Crossing Over the Line: Legislating Morality and the Mann Act. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Further Reading:
1.       Bartley, Paula. Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England, 1860–1914. New York: Routledge, 2000
2.       Ringdal, Nils Johan. Love for Sale: A World History of Prostitution. Trans. Richard Daly. New York: Grove Press, 2004
3.       Shanley, Mary Lyndon. Feminism, Marriage, and the Law in Victorian England. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Further Reading:
1.       Dembrowski, P. F. La Vie de Ste. Marie Egyptienne. Geneva: Droz, 1977
2.       “St. Mary of Egypt.” In Women SaintsLives in Old English Prose, ed. and trans. Leslie A. Donovan. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1999, pp. 97–120.

Further Reading:
1.       Maisch, Ingrid. Mary Magdalene: The Image of a Woman through the Centuries, trans. Linda Malony. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998
2.       Meyer, Marvin, with Esther A. de Boer. The Gospels of Mary: The Secret Tradition of Mary Magdalene, the Companion of Jesus. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2004
3.       Schaberg, Jane. The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene. New York: Continuum, 2003.

Further Reading:
1.       Cleugh, James. The Marquis and the Chevalier. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1952
2.       Masoch, Leopold von Sacher. Venus in Furs, trans. Joachim Neugroschel. New York, 2000. Project Guttenberg http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6852.

Further Reading:
1.       Granatstein, J. L., and David Stafford. Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1990
2.       Waagenaar, Sam. Mata Hari. New York: Appleton-Century, 1965.

Further Reading:
1.       Mayhew, Henry. London Labour and the London Poor. Vol. 4, Those That Will Not Work. New York: A.M. Kelley, 1967
2.       Mayhew, Henry. Selections from London Labour and the London Poor, chosen and with an introduction by John L. Bradley. London: Oxford University Press, 1965
3.       Thompson, E. P., and Elaine Yeo. The Unknown Mayhew. London: Pantheon Books, 1971.

Further Reading:
1.       Hill, Marilyn Wood. Their SistersKeepers: Prostitution in New York City, 1830– 1870. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993
2.       Whiteaker, Larry. Seduction, Prostitution, and Moral Reform in New York, 1830–1860. New York: Garland, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Cooke, Thomas Darlington. The Old French and Chaucerian Fabliaux: A Study of Their Comic Climax. Columbia: University of Georgia Press, 1978
2.       Hines, John. The Fabliau in English. London: Longman, 1993
3.       Rossiaud, Jacques. Medieval Prostitution, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988
4.       Severs, J. B., and A. E. Hartung. A Manual of the Writings in Middle English 1050–1400. 8 Vols. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967–2004
5.       Voragine, Jacobus de. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints, trans. William Granger Ryan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Further Reading:
1.       Brundage, James A. “Prostitution in the Medieval Canon Law.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1 (1975): 825–45. Reprinted in Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church, ed. Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1982, pp. 149–60. Also reprinted in Sisters and Workers in the Middle Ages, ed. Judith M. Bennett et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989, pp. 79–99
2.       Goldberg, P.J.P. “Pigs and Prostitutes: Streetwalking in Comparative Perspective.” In Young Medieval Women, ed. Katherine J. Lewis, James Menuge, and Kim M. Phillips. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999, pp.172–93
3.       Karras, Ruth Mazo. Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996
4.       Kettle, Ann J. “Ruined Maids: Prostitutes and Servant Girls in Later Medieval England.” In Matrons and Marginal Women in Medieval Society, ed. Robert R. Edwards and Vickie Ziegler. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 1995, pp. 19–31
5.       Otis, Leah Lydia. Prostitution in Medieval Society: The History of an Urban Institution in Languedoc. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985
6.       Rollo-Koster, Joëlle. “From Prostitutes to Brides of Christ: The Avignonese Repenties in the Late Middle Ages.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 32, no. 1 (2002): 109–44
7.       Rossiaud, Jacques. Medieval Prostitution, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. New York: Basil Blackwell 1988.
Further Reading and Viewing:
1.       Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee. Namaskar (December 2002) 5: 2
2.       Festival of Pleasure. [Documentary]. Produced by Sex Workers Forum Kerala, 2003
3.       “Odissi Dance Form.” I Love India Web site www.dances.iloveindia.com/classical-dances/odissi. html
4.       Panicker, K. Ayyappa, ed. Kamasuthra of Vatsyayana. (Malayalam) Kottayam, India: DC Books, 1998
5.       People’s Union for Civil Liberties. “Human Rights Violations against the Transgender Community.” http://www.pucl.org/Topics/Gender/2003/transgender.htm
6.       Thapar, Romila, ed. “State and Economy: South India circa a.d. 400–1300.” In Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History. Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan, 1995.

Further Reading:
1.       Delacoste, Frederique, and Priscilla Alexander, eds. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1998
2.       Sterry, David Henry. Chicken: Self-Portrait of a Young Man for Rent. New York: Regan Books, 2003
3.       Sycamore, Matt Bernstein, ed. Tricks and Treats: Sex Workers Write about Their Clients. New York: Harrington Park Press, 2000.

Further Reading:
1.       Cameron, Liz. “Research: Empowering or Exploitative?” In Partnership for Prevention: A Report of a Meeting between Womens Health Advocates, Program Planners, and Scientists. Washington, DC: Program Council for Women’s Health and the International Women’s Health Coalition, 1994. www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/ebert/partprev.pdf
2.       Family Health International. “Microbicide Products Enter Human Trials.” http://www.FHI.org/en/RH/Pubs/Network/v20_2/ Nwvol20–2microbicides.htm
3.       Global Campaign for Microbicides. http://www.global-campaign. org
4.       Lamphear, Trisha L. “Milestones in Microbicide Research and Development.” Microbicide Quarterly (December 2004): 6–8
5.       MacQueen, Kathleen M., and Jeremy Sugarman. “Back to the Rough Ground: Working in International HIV Prevention as Ethical Debates Continue.” IRB: Ethics and Human Research (March-April 2003): 11–13.

Further Reading:
1.       Herlihy, James Leo. Midnight Cowboy: A Novel. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965
2.       Mann, William J. Edge of Midnight: The Life of John Schlesinger. London: Hutchinson, 2004.

Further Reading:
1.       Agustín, Laura. “The Disappearing of a Migration Category: Migrants Who Sell Sex.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32, no. 1 (2006)
2.       Agustín, Laura. “A Migrant World of Services.” Social Politics, 10, no. 3, (2003): 377–96. Held, David et al. Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999
3.       Massey, Doreen. “Imagining Globalization: Power-Geometries of Time-Space.” In A. Brah, M. Hickman and M. Macan Ghaill, eds. Global Futures: Migration, Environment and Globalization, London: Macmillan, 1999, 27–43
4.       Massey, Douglas et al. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19, no. 3, (1993): 431–66
5.       Moch, Leslie Page. Moving Europeans. Migration in Western Europe since 1650. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992
6.       Morokvasic, Mirjana. “Birds of Passage are also Women.” International Migration Research, 18, no. 4, (1984): 886–907
7.       Pedraza, Silvia. “Women and Migration: The Social Consequences of Gender.” Annual Review of Sociology, 17 (1991): 303–25
8.       Portes, Alejandro, Luís Guarnizo, and Patricia Landolt. “The Study of Transnationalism: Pitfalls and Promise of an Emergent Research Field.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22, no. 2, (1999): 27–37
9.       Pyle, Jean L. “Sex, Maids, and Export Processing: Risks and Reasons for Gendered Global Production Networks.” International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 15, no. 1, (2001): 55–76
10.   Sassen, Saskia. Guests and Aliens. New York: The New Press, 1999
11.   Singleton, Ann and Paolo Barbesino. “The Production and Reproduction of Knowledge on International Migration in Europe: The Social Embeddedness of Social Knowledge.” In F. Anthias and G. Lazaridis, eds. Into the Margins: Migration and Exclusion in Southern Europe, Aldershot UK: Ashgate, 1999, 13–33
12.   Stoneking, Mark. “Women on the Move.” Nature Genetics, 20 (1998): 219–20
13.   Truong, Thanh-Dam. “Gender, International Migration and Social Reproduction: Implications for Theory, Policy, Research and Networking.” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 5, no. 1, (1996): 27–52.

Further Reading:
1.       Martin, Jay. Always Merry and Bright: The Life of Henry Miller. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra, 1978.

Further Reading:
1.       Amutabi, Maurice, and Mary Lutta-Mukhebi. “Gender and Mining in Kenya: The Case of Mukibira Mines in Vihiga District.” Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies 1, no. 2 (2001), http://www.jendajournal.com/vol1.2/amutabi_lutta-mukhebi.html
2.       Holliday, J. S. The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981
3.       Lapp, Rudolph, M. Blacks in Gold Rush California. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977
4.       Parpart, J. L. Class and Gender on the Copperbelt: Women in Northern Rhodesian Copper Mining Areas, 1926–1964. Working Paper No. 77. Boston: African Studies Center, 1983
5.       Rohrbough, M. J. Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Dworkin, Andrea. Woman Hating. New York: Dutton, 1974
2.       Vance, Carole, ed. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984
3.       Williams, Mary, and Tamara Roleff, eds. Sexual Violence: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1997.

Further Reading:
1.       Elliot, Robert C., ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Moll Flanders: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hill, 1970
2.       Olson, Thomas Grant. “Reading and Righting Moll Flanders.” Studies in English Literature 1500–1900 41 (2001): 467–81.

Further Reading:
1.       Emeljanow, Victor. “Lola Montez.” In American National Biography. 20 Vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, vol. XV, pp. 696–97
2.       Ross, Ishbel. The Uncrowned Queen: Life of Lola Montez. New York: Harper and Row, 1972
3.       Seymour, Bruce. Lola Montez: A Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

Further Reading:
1.       Granatstein, J. L., and David Stafford. Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1990.

Further Reading:
1.       Carmen, Arlene, and Howard Moody. Working Women: The Subterranean World of Street Prostitution. New York: Harper and Row, 1985
2.       Holmes, Ronald M., and Stephen T. Holmes, eds. Current Perspectives on Sex Crimes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002
3.       MacKinnon, Catharine A. Womens Lives, Mens Laws. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005
4.       Ratner, Mitchell S., ed. Crack Pipe as Pimp: An Eight-City Ethnographic Study of Sex-for- Crack Exchanges. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1992.

Further Reading:
1.       Albert, Alexa, Brothel: Mustang Ranch and Its Women. New York: Random House, 2001
2.       Hausbeck, Kathryn, and Barbara G. Brents. “Inside Nevada’s Brothel Industry.” In Sex for Sale: Prostitution, Pornography and the Sex Industry, ed. Ronald Weitz. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Further Reading:
1.       Gibson, Ian. The Erotomaniac. The Secret Life of Henry Spencer Ashbee. London: Faber and Faber, 2001
2.       Kearney, Patrick J. A History of Erotic Literature. London: Macmillan, 1983
3.       Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians. New York: Basic Books, 1966
4.       Mendes, Peter. Clandestine Erotic Fiction in English 1800–1930: A Bibliographical Study. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1993.

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