Friday, July 11, 2014

SylviaAnnHewlett. Child neglect in rich nations. UNICEF. 1993. 07. Footnotes and photocredits.

53.   Packard, Vance, Our Endangered Children: Growing Up in a Changing World, Little, Brown, New York, 1983, p. 56.
54.   Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, A Lesser Life, p. 374.
55.   The Dutch Cross Society is an association promoting maternal and child health care as well as home nursing for the sick, disabled and elderly. It is organized on a national, regional and local basis, and two thirds of all Dutch families are members.
56.   Williams, Bret C., and Miller, C. Arden, Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy, National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, Washington, D.C., 1991, p. 26.
57.   Miller, C. Arden, Maternal Health and Infant Survival, National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 24.
58.   ‘Maternity Home Care and Related Services on Offer by the Dutch Cross Society’, National Association for Community Nursing and Home Help Services, Bunnick, Netherlands, 1991, pp. 12-13.
59.   Ibid., p. 12.
60.   The Swedish Institute, ‘Fact Sheets on Sweden: Child Care in Sweden’, March 1990.
61.   National Social Insurance Board, Statistical Division, Social Insurance Statistics: Facts 1991, National Social Insurance Board, December 1991, Stockholm, pp. 25-29.
62.   ‘By Your Leave, Europe’, The Economist, 22 August 1987, p. 46, and Women in Australia, 1992, p. 129.
63.   The Swedish Institute, ‘Fact Sheets on Sweden: Social Insurance in Sweden’, January 1991.
64.   Cutler, Blayne, The Swedish Example’, American Demographics, Vol. 11, No. 4, April 1989, p. 70.
65.   The Progress of Nations, UNICEF, New York, 1993, p. 51.
66.   Kamerman, Sheila B., ‘Child Care Policies and Programs: An International Overview’, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 47, No. 2,1991, p. 193.
67.   Leprince, Frederique, in Day Care for Young Children: International Perspectives  Edward C. Melhuish and Peter Moss, eds., Routledge, London, 1991, p. 12.
68.   Childcare in the European Communities, 1985-90, Commission of the European Community, No. 31, Brussels, August 1990, p. 19.
69.   L’Enfant dans la vie, 1986.
70.   Baudelot, Olga, ‘Child Care in France’, in Sylvia Ann Hewlett, Alice S. Ilchman, and John J. Sweeney, Family and Work: Bridging the Gap, Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass., 1986, p. 49.
71.   Holtermann, Sally, Investing in Young Children: Costing an Education and Day Care Service, National Children’s Bureau, London, 1992.
72.   Cohen, Bronwen, and Fraser, Neil, Childcare in a Modern Welfare State: Towards a New National Policy, Institute of Public Policy Research, London, 1991.
73.   Hansard, H.L., Vol. 502, Col. 488.
74.   Children in Care, House of Commons Social Services Select Committee Report, London, 1984.
75.   Parton, Nigel, Governing the Family: ChildCare, Child Protection and the State, Macmillan, 1991, p. 75.
76.   The Guardian, 26 February 1992, p. 23.
77.   Frost, Nick, and Stein, Mike, The Politics of the Children Act’, Child-right, No. 68, July/ August 1990, pp. 17-19.
78.   Glendon, Mary Ann, op. cit., p. 105.
79.   Ibid., p. 84.
80.   Ibid., p. 85.
81.   Ibid., p. 86. The generosity of the Swedish benefit-service package is described in S. Kamerman and A. Kahn, Income transfers for Families with Children: An Eight-Country Study, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1983.
82.   Quoted in Lenore J. Weitzman, The Marriage Contract, The Free Press, New York, 1981, p. 152.
83.   SeediscussioninHewlett,WhentheBough Breaks, pp. 322-323.
84.   Bulletin, London, Family Policy Studies Centre, December 1991, p. 8.
85.   OECD Observer, ‘Labour Markets in the 1990s: OECD Employment Outlook’, Paris, October/November 1990.
86.   Dingwall, James, ‘A Labor Crisis Looms’, D & B Reports, May/June 1989, p. 63.
87.   Business Week, 19 September 1988.
88.   Burud, Sandra L., Aschbacker, Pamela R., and McCroskey, Jacquelyn, Employer Supported Child Care: Investing in Human Resources, Auburn House, Dover, Mass., 1984, pp. 22-26.
89.   Ransom, Cynthia, Aschbacker, PamelaR., and Burud, Sandra L., ‘The Return in the Child-Care Investment’, Personnel Administrator, October 1989, pp. 54-58. Nationwide, mothers of preschool children have a very high absentee rate—11.5 per cent, compared with 5.8 per cent for married women with no children. See Joseph R. Meisenheimer II, ‘Employee Absences in 1989: A New Look at Data from the CBS’, Monthly Labor Review, 113, No. 8, August 1990, p. 29.
90.   Warne, Lynne M., ‘News Release’, Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 3 August 1989.
91.   Phillips, J. Douglas, ‘Employee Turnover and the Bottom Line’, working paper, Merck & Co. Inc., February 1989, p. 2.
92.   Ibid., p. 6.
93.   Smith, Michael, ‘Nursery Lesson for Employers on Childcare’, The Financial Times, 24 February 1989, p. 7.
94.   Telephone interview, Ted Childs, Director, Work-Life Program, IBM, 8 March 1991.
95.   According to Sheila Kamerman, “The prototypical American family with two children, a working father and a part-time working mother... can expect to spend about $200,000 per child up to age 18.” See book review by Sheila B. Kamerman of Thomas J. Espenshade’s Investing in Children: New Estimates ojParental Expenditures, The Urban Institute Press, Washington.D.C., 1984, in Social Work, May-June 1986, Vol. 31, No. 3, p. 227. More recently Money magazine, using Department of Agriculture figures, estimated that the average family earning $50,000 or more a year will spend $265,249 to feed, clothe and shelter a child up to age 22. See Andrea Rock, ‘Can You Afford Your Kids?’, Money, July 1990, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 88-99.
96.   Zelizer, Viviana A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children, Basic Books Inc., New York, 1985, p. 3.
97.   Ibid., p. 4.
98.   Fukuyama, Francis, ‘The End of History’, TheNationallnterest, No. 16, Summer 1989, p3.
99.   The Financial Times, 20 April 1990, p. 26.
100.          ‘A Third world New Zealand?’, Time, 16 December 1991, pp. 20-25.
101.          Johnston, William B., and Packer, Arnold H., Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century, Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, 1987, p. 102.
102.          Coleman, James S., US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Education, ‘Effects of School on Learning: The IEA Findings’, presented at a Conference on Educational Achievement, Harvard University, November 1973, p. 40.
103.          Ehrlich, Elizabeth, ‘America’s Schools Still Aren’t Making the Grade’, Business Week, 19 September 1988, p. 132.
104.          Reich, Robert B., ‘Who is Us?’, Harvard Business Review, 68, No. 1, January-February 1990, p. 59.
105.          Ohmae, K., et. al., ‘The Boundaries of Business: Commentaries from the Experts’, Harvard Business Review, Cambridge, Mass., July-August 1991, p. 127.
106.          Committee for Economic Development, ‘Children in Need, Investment Strategies for the Educationally Disadvantaged’, CED, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 3.

Photo credits
1.      P. vi: Raissa Page/Format
2.      P. 4: Gale Zucker/Stock Boston
3.      P. 9: Peter Menzel/Stock Boston
4.      P. 10: Gale Zucker/Stock Boston
5.      P. 14: Mike Mazzaschi/Stock Boston
6.      P. 18: Glen Korengold/Stock Boston
7.      P. 20: Stephen Shames/Matrix
8.      P. 23: Stephen Shames/Matrix
9.      P. 24: Francesco Zizola
10.   P. 25: Stephen Shames/Matrix
11.   P. 28: Brenda Prince/Format
12.   P. 29: Francesco Zizola
13.   P. 30: Stig Nilsson/Pressen Bild
14.   P. 34: Paul Hansen/Pressens Bild
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17.   P. 41: Brenda Prince/Stock Boston
18.   P. 44: Owen Franken/Stock Boston
19.   P. 47: Frances Cox/Stock Boston
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21.   P. 54: The Wellington Evening Post
22.   P. 56: Stephen Shames/Matrix Cover illustration: Michelle Sicgel

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